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Multimodal Technologies Interact., Volume 1, Issue 4 (December 2017)

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Research

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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle EyeAR: Refocusable Augmented Reality Content through Eye Measurements
Multimodal Technologies Interact. 2017, 1(4), 22; doi:10.3390/mti1040022
Received: 15 July 2017 / Revised: 25 August 2017 / Accepted: 18 September 2017 / Published: 26 September 2017
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Abstract
Augmented Reality (AR) superimposes computer graphics (CG) onto a user’s view of the real world. A key quality problem in this field is to achieve coherence between reality and CG when the user’s eyes refocus or change pupil size. We designed and evaluated
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Augmented Reality (AR) superimposes computer graphics (CG) onto a user’s view of the real world. A key quality problem in this field is to achieve coherence between reality and CG when the user’s eyes refocus or change pupil size. We designed and evaluated a display that improves coherence by measuring the user’s eye state and continuously adapting CG accordingly. Our tabletop prototype emulates an Optical See-Through Head-Mounted Display, a common AR display device. In our evaluation, participants observed three pillars at different depths. We then challenged them to identify a virtual pillar among the three while freely refocusing their eyes. Results show that our design significantly improved realism. Compared to Light Field Displays, our design aims to simplify display-optics while providing similar quality. We could only partially achieve this goal. We discuss the lessons we learned and how we plan to overcome the remaining challenges. The experimental protocol from our evaluation is useful for display developers as it can be used to measure the coherence of a display. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Augmented Reality)
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Open AccessArticle An Evaluation-Driven Design Process for Exhibitions
Multimodal Technologies Interact. 2017, 1(4), 25; doi:10.3390/mti1040025
Received: 30 August 2017 / Revised: 29 September 2017 / Accepted: 30 September 2017 / Published: 5 October 2017
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Abstract
Museums and science centres are informal education environments that intend to engage visitors with their exhibits.We present an efficient design process that allows an improved working relationship between museum practitioners, exhibition designers, and visitors. Its principles and a graphical representation are based on
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Museums and science centres are informal education environments that intend to engage visitors with their exhibits.We present an efficient design process that allows an improved working relationship between museum practitioners, exhibition designers, and visitors. Its principles and a graphical representation are based on the Engagement Profile from previous work. Curators and designers evaluate the qualities of exhibits using the engagement profile while visitors inform the design process by answering a standardised questionnaire. Elements of the design process were evaluated using an educational game at the science centre Engineerium. This study was based on the responses from over five hundred visitors to the science centre. As an outcome, the science centre received valuable information of how to improve the exhibit. Further, one iteration of the design process was implemented in practice. First experiences show that our method will practically support the work of museum practitioners and exhibition designers. We present the principles and a graphical representation based on the Engagement Profile from previous work. Elements of the design process are evaluated using an educational game at the science centre Engineerium. The evaluation is based on a study with over five hundred visitors to the science centre. Full article
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Open AccessArticle The Emperor’s New Augmented Clothes. Digital Objects as Part of the Every Day
Multimodal Technologies Interact. 2017, 1(4), 26; doi:10.3390/mti1040026
Received: 18 September 2017 / Revised: 13 October 2017 / Accepted: 20 October 2017 / Published: 23 October 2017
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Abstract
The main aim of this work is to solve a problem that Augmented Reality is facing by using phenomenological and phenomenological analyses and projectors. Augmented reality seeks to merge the digital and real world by producing a mixed reality where the digital objects
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The main aim of this work is to solve a problem that Augmented Reality is facing by using phenomenological and phenomenological analyses and projectors. Augmented reality seeks to merge the digital and real world by producing a mixed reality where the digital objects are usually visualised thanks to the head mounted or mobile devices. However, this technology is facing problems because the objects generated by the digital devices are existing merely inside the small group of people while using specific devices. Therefore, these objects look fictitious for the other members of the society who are not using them. In order to analyse the elements which make these objects fictitious for the other member of the society, we will take into account the story of The Emperor’s new clothes because, even in this story, there are fictional entities not perceivable by other members of the community. Thanks to this story, it will be possible to highlight some elements which make the objects part of the everyday world. Moreover, it will show how the intersubjectivity of these objects is directly related to their way of being perceived by the subjects and, in the case of augmented reality, to the devices used to make them perceivable. For this reason, it is possible to solve the problem Augmented Reality is facing by changing the devices used to produce these digital objects. At the end of the work, we will propose a project which can solve the problem by following the elements previously highlighted. We will show how, thanks to wearable projectors, it is possible to produce digital clothes as part of the everyday world of every subject. Thanks to these digital clothes people will be able to wear the digital objects as if they were common, usual objects without being naked. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Augmented Reality)
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Open AccessArticle A Survey on the Procedural Generation of Virtual Worlds
Multimodal Technologies Interact. 2017, 1(4), 27; doi:10.3390/mti1040027
Received: 30 August 2017 / Revised: 12 October 2017 / Accepted: 20 October 2017 / Published: 30 October 2017
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Abstract
This survey presents algorithms for the automatic generation of content for virtual worlds, in particular for games. After a definition of the term procedural content generation, the algorithms to generate realistic objects such as landscapes and vegetation, road networks, buildings, living beings
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This survey presents algorithms for the automatic generation of content for virtual worlds, in particular for games. After a definition of the term procedural content generation, the algorithms to generate realistic objects such as landscapes and vegetation, road networks, buildings, living beings and stories are introduced in detail. In our discussion, we emphasize a good compromise between the realism of the objects and the performance of the algorithms. The survey also assesses each generated object type in terms of its applicability in games and simulations of virtual worlds. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Virtual Reality and Games)
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Open AccessArticle Human Perception Measures for Product Design and Development—A Tutorial to Measurement Methods and Analysis
Multimodal Technologies Interact. 2017, 1(4), 28; doi:10.3390/mti1040028
Received: 28 July 2017 / Revised: 27 September 2017 / Accepted: 27 October 2017 / Published: 31 October 2017
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Abstract
This tutorial describes the necessary steps for designing and conducting a perception experiment in order to obtain design parameters for human–machine interactions. It is intended for engineers and product designers, which require design parameters not included in the current state of the art.
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This tutorial describes the necessary steps for designing and conducting a perception experiment in order to obtain design parameters for human–machine interactions. It is intended for engineers and product designers, which require design parameters not included in the current state of the art. Topics addressed are the preposition of hypotheses, the selection of parameters, psychophysical measurement procedures and the calculation of sample sizes. Relevant steps for data analysis from psychology and social sciences are applied to the engineering and design context and guidelines for reporting results are given. The required steps are illustrated with an example experiment assessing detection thresholds of damping parameters of haptic automotive rotary controls with regard to parameters like knob diameter and distraction. Results imply significant effects of knob diameter on both absolute and differential thresholds, but no effect of distraction, implying a good transferability of laboratory results to real-world applications. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Exploring the Virtuality Continuum for Complex Rule-Set Education in the Context of Soccer Rule Comprehension
Multimodal Technologies Interact. 2017, 1(4), 30; doi:10.3390/mti1040030
Received: 23 July 2017 / Revised: 26 October 2017 / Accepted: 3 November 2017 / Published: 9 November 2017
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Abstract
We present an exploratory study to assess the benefits of using Augmented Reality (AR) in training sports rule comprehension. Soccer is the chosen context for this study due to the wide range of complexity in the rules and regulations. Observers must understand and
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We present an exploratory study to assess the benefits of using Augmented Reality (AR) in training sports rule comprehension. Soccer is the chosen context for this study due to the wide range of complexity in the rules and regulations. Observers must understand and holistically evaluate the proximity of players in the game to the ball and other visual objects, such as the goal, penalty area, and other players. Grounded in previous literature investigating the effects of Virtual Reality (VR) scenarios on transfer of training (ToT), we explore how three different interfaces influence user perception using both qualitative and quantitative measures. To better understand how effective augmented reality technology is when combined with learning systems, we compare results on the effects of learning outcomes in three interface conditions: AR, VR and a traditional Desktop interface. We also compare these interfaces as measured by user experience, engagement, and immersion. Results show that there were no significance difference among VR and AR; however, these participants outperformed the Desktop group which needed a higher number of adaptations to acquire the same knowledge. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Augmented Reality)
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Review

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Open AccessReview Immersive Environments and Virtual Reality: Systematic Review and Advances in Communication, Interaction and Simulation
Multimodal Technologies Interact. 2017, 1(4), 21; doi:10.3390/mti1040021
Received: 24 August 2017 / Revised: 17 September 2017 / Accepted: 18 September 2017 / Published: 27 September 2017
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Abstract
Today, virtual reality and immersive environments are lines of research which can be applied to numerous scientific and educational domains. Immersive digital media needs new approaches regarding its interactive and immersive features, which means the design of new narratives and relationships with users.
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Today, virtual reality and immersive environments are lines of research which can be applied to numerous scientific and educational domains. Immersive digital media needs new approaches regarding its interactive and immersive features, which means the design of new narratives and relationships with users. Additionally, ICT (information and communication theory) evolves through more immersive and interactive scenarios, it being necessary to design and conceive new forms of representing information and improving users’ interaction with immersive environments. Virtual reality and technologies associated with the virtuality continuum, such as immersive and digital environments, are emerging media. As a medium, this approach may help to build and represent ideas and concepts, as well as developing new languages. This review analyses the cutting-edge expressive, interactive and representative potential of immersive digital technologies. It also considers future possibilities regarding the evolution of these immersive technologies, such as virtual reality, in coming years, in order to apply them to diverse scientific, artistic or informational and educational domains. We conclude that virtual reality is an ensemble of technological innovations, but also a concept, and propose models to link it with the latest in other domains such as UX (user experience), interaction design. This concept can help researchers and developers to design new experiences and conceive new expressive models that can be applied to a wide range of scientific lines of research and educational dynamics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Virtual Reality and Games)
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Open AccessReview Supporting Optimal Aging through the Innovative Use of Virtual Reality Technology
Multimodal Technologies Interact. 2017, 1(4), 23; doi:10.3390/mti1040023
Received: 31 August 2017 / Revised: 21 September 2017 / Accepted: 25 September 2017 / Published: 28 September 2017
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Abstract
Although virtual reality (VR) technology has been implemented as a tool to address the health issues of older adults, its applicability to social connectedness is underrepresented in the literature, and less is known about its efficacy in this area in contributing to overall
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Although virtual reality (VR) technology has been implemented as a tool to address the health issues of older adults, its applicability to social connectedness is underrepresented in the literature, and less is known about its efficacy in this area in contributing to overall wellness and well-being in later life. Expanding the VR possibilities beyond traditional entertainment purposes holds considerable potential for the older adult market. Technological tools have been employed in the elder health care field for many years, and cutting-edge developments such as virtual and augmented reality have begun to be used to facilitate optimal wellness in aging. Such technological advances have the potential to significantly impact one of the most important issues that older people face: social isolation and loneliness. This paper will serve as an introductory exploration of what is currently known about the use of virtual reality technology with an older cohort. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Virtual Reality and Games)
Open AccessReview The New Era of Virtual Reality Locomotion: A Systematic Literature Review of Techniques and a Proposed Typology
Multimodal Technologies Interact. 2017, 1(4), 24; doi:10.3390/mti1040024
Received: 7 September 2017 / Revised: 21 September 2017 / Accepted: 25 September 2017 / Published: 28 September 2017
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Abstract
The latest technical and interaction advancements that took place in the Virtual Reality (VR) field have marked a new era, not only for VR, but also for VR locomotion. Although the latest advancements in VR locomotion have raised the interest of both researchers
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The latest technical and interaction advancements that took place in the Virtual Reality (VR) field have marked a new era, not only for VR, but also for VR locomotion. Although the latest advancements in VR locomotion have raised the interest of both researchers and users in analyzing and experiencing current VR locomotion techniques, the field of research on VR locomotion, in its new era, is still uncharted. In this work, VR locomotion is explored through a systematic literature review investigating empirical studies of VR locomotion techniques from 2014–2017. The review analyzes the VR locomotion techniques that have been studied, their interaction-related characteristics and the research topics that were addressed in these studies. Thirty-six articles were identified as relevant to the literature review, and the analysis of the articles resulted in 73 instances of 11 VR locomotion techniques, such as real-walking, walking-in-place, point and teleport, joystick-based locomotion, and more. Results showed that since the VR revival, the focus of VR locomotion research has been on VR technology and various technological aspects, overshadowing the investigation of user experience. From an interaction perspective, the majority of the utilized and studied VR locomotion techniques were found to be based on physical interaction, exploiting physical motion cues for navigation in VR environments. A significant contribution of the literature review lies in the proposed typology for VR locomotion, introducing four distinct VR locomotion types: motion-based, room scale-based, controller-based and teleportation-based locomotion. Full article
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Open AccessReview Augmented Reality: Advances in Diagnostic Imaging
Multimodal Technologies Interact. 2017, 1(4), 29; doi:10.3390/mti1040029
Received: 29 August 2017 / Revised: 3 November 2017 / Accepted: 3 November 2017 / Published: 8 November 2017
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Abstract
In recent years, advances in medical imaging have provided opportunities for enhanced diagnosis and characterization of diseases including cancer. The improved spatial resolution provides outstanding detail of intricate anatomical structures, but has challenged physicians on how to effectively and efficiently review the extremely
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In recent years, advances in medical imaging have provided opportunities for enhanced diagnosis and characterization of diseases including cancer. The improved spatial resolution provides outstanding detail of intricate anatomical structures, but has challenged physicians on how to effectively and efficiently review the extremely large datasets of over 1000 images. Standard volume rendering attempts to tackle this problem as it provides a display of 3D information on a flat 2D screen, but it lacks depth perception and has poor human–machine interface (HMI). Most recently, Augmented Reality/Virtual Reality (AR/VR) with depth 3-dimensional (D3D) imaging provides depth perception through binocular vision, head tracking for improved HMI and other key AR features. In this article, we will discuss current and future medical applications of AR including assessing breast cancer. We contend that leveraging AR technology may enhance diagnosis, save cost and improve patient care. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Augmented Reality)
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