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Infrastructures, Volume 1, Issue 1 (December 2016)

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Editorial

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Open AccessEditorial Infrastructures—An Open Access Journal
Infrastructures 2016, 1(1), 1-7; doi:10.3390/infrastructures1010001
Received: 18 November 2015 / Accepted: 18 November 2015 / Published: 23 November 2015
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Abstract
Infrastructures are crucial components in the development of a country, enhancing the country’s productivity, improving the efficiency of production, transportation, and communication. The journal considers the term infrastructures in a broad sense. In recent decades, the advances in infrastructures have been enormous. They
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Infrastructures are crucial components in the development of a country, enhancing the country’s productivity, improving the efficiency of production, transportation, and communication. The journal considers the term infrastructures in a broad sense. In recent decades, the advances in infrastructures have been enormous. They include the application of new construction materials, improvement of computer tools, and the development of machinery that allows us to embark on ambitious construction projects, in a safe, efficient and sustainable manner. Therefore, the future and scope of infrastructures is very promising and exciting; the concept of Smart Infrastructure is key in the development of the countries and their cities. From the old concept of infrastructure as a passive element, arises the new idea of infrastructure as active component that interacts with the users, people or machines.[...] Full article
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Research

Jump to: Editorial

Open AccessArticle The Lifecycle Benefit–Cost Analysis for a Rural Bridge Construction to Support Energy Transportation
Infrastructures 2016, 1(1), 2; doi:10.3390/infrastructures1010002
Received: 8 January 2016 / Revised: 12 March 2016 / Accepted: 21 March 2016 / Published: 24 March 2016
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Abstract
Rural roads represent an important part of the economy in the Great Plains and Midwest of the United States. As oil exploration in North Dakota increases, the number of vehicles travelling on these roads is also increasing, resulting in significant needs for infrastructure
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Rural roads represent an important part of the economy in the Great Plains and Midwest of the United States. As oil exploration in North Dakota increases, the number of vehicles travelling on these roads is also increasing, resulting in significant needs for infrastructure maintenance and upgrades, including the construction of new bridges. The lifecycle benefit–cost analysis of bridge construction is the overall objective of this research. This paper investigates the benefits of combining travel demand modeling and lifecycle benefit–cost analysis, and demonstrates traffic forecasting using geographic information systems (GIS) and network flow problem. The paper also shows a comparison of the alternative scenarios. The authors demonstrate a method of integrating geographic information systems, operations research, and data analytics to estimate future traffic by evaluating infrastructure needs. The travel demand modeling is essential for the lifecycle benefit–cost analysis. This study would help government agencies and construction companies evaluate and prioritize new bridge construction projects. The agencies should consider adding the environmental costs. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Key Construction Technology of Shield Tunneling Crossing underneath a Railway
Infrastructures 2016, 1(1), 4; doi:10.3390/infrastructures1010004
Received: 14 August 2016 / Revised: 3 November 2016 / Accepted: 4 November 2016 / Published: 10 November 2016
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Abstract
The shield tunnel of the Kunming subway crosses beneath the Kun-Shi Railway. Due to the high requirements of railway track for settlement control, this article proposes the following technical measures for controlling the settlement based on the analysis of risks arising from the
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The shield tunnel of the Kunming subway crosses beneath the Kun-Shi Railway. Due to the high requirements of railway track for settlement control, this article proposes the following technical measures for controlling the settlement based on the analysis of risks arising from the shield crossing railway: (1) Reinforcing the stratum of the region crossed by the shield in advance to achieve high stability; (2) Using a reinforced segment for the shield tunnel and increasing reserved grouting holes for construction; (3) Reasonably configuring resources, optimizing construction parameters, strengthening monitoring and information management during the shield crossing. In strict accordance with the construction plan, the shield successfully and safely crossed beneath the Kun-Shi Railway; this provides experience that can be used in similar projects in the future. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Improving MMS Performance during Infrastructure Surveys through Geometry Aided Design
Infrastructures 2016, 1(1), 5; doi:10.3390/infrastructures1010005
Received: 2 October 2016 / Revised: 28 November 2016 / Accepted: 29 November 2016 / Published: 8 December 2016
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Abstract
A Mobile Mapping System (MMS) equipped with laser scanners can collect large volumes of LiDAR data in a short time frame and generate complex 3D models of infrastructure. The performance of the automated algorithms that are developed to extract the infrastructure elements from
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A Mobile Mapping System (MMS) equipped with laser scanners can collect large volumes of LiDAR data in a short time frame and generate complex 3D models of infrastructure. The performance of the automated algorithms that are developed to extract the infrastructure elements from the point clouds and create these models are largely dependent on the number of pulses striking infrastructure in these clouds. Mobile Mapping Systems have evolved accordingly, adding more and higher specification scanners to achieve the required high point density, however an unanswered question is whether optimising system configuration can achieve similar improvements at no extra cost. This paper presents an approach for improving MMS performance for infrastructure surveys through consideration of scanner orientation, scanner position and scanner operating parameters in a methodology referred to as Geometry Aided Design. A series of tests were designed to measure point cloud characteristics such as point density, point spacing and profile spacing. Three hypothetical MMSs were benchmarked to demonstrate the benefit of Geometry Aided Design for infrastructure surveys. These tests demonstrate that, with the recommended scanner configuration, a MMS, operating one high specification scanner and one low specification scanner, is capable of comparable performance with two high-end systems when benchmarked against a selection of planar, multi-faced and cylindrical targets, resulting in point density improvements in some cases of up to 400%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Building Information Modelling for Civil Infrastructures)
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Open AccessArticle CFD Evaluation of Philippine Detached Structure with Different Roofing Designs
Infrastructures 2016, 1(1), 3; doi:10.3390/infrastructures1010003
Received: 3 September 2016 / Revised: 1 October 2016 / Accepted: 6 October 2016 / Published: 10 October 2016
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Abstract
The Philippines is located in the typhoon belt region in the western side of the Pacific Ocean. Every year, an average of twenty typhoons pass through the country, resulting in the loss of life and property. As the design of the roofing is
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The Philippines is located in the typhoon belt region in the western side of the Pacific Ocean. Every year, an average of twenty typhoons pass through the country, resulting in the loss of life and property. As the design of the roofing is an important factor in the structural integrity of the detached structures and the survival of the occupants, an evaluation of different roofing designs for the detached structure is needed. Different roofing designs, typical in Philippine detached structures were investigated using the computation fluid dynamics (CFD). The developed CFD model was validated based on the data from full scale and wind tunnel results. The different roofing designs were evaluated in the developed and validated model based on the flow field, pressure coefficients and streamlines at different wind angles. The results show that different roofing designs affect the flow field velocity, flow field pressure coefficient and the structure’s surface pressure coefficients. The pyramidal and domed roofing designs have a smoother flow field velocity, flow field pressure coefficient and house surface pressure coefficient. The eaves overhang, which is common in Philippine detached structures, has a large effect on the surface pressure coefficient and the velocity streamlines, as compared to structures with no eaves overhang. The results of this study show the importance of the roof design in Philippine detached structures. Full article
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