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Designs, Volume 2, Issue 1 (March 2018)

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Open AccessArticle A Study of the Mixing Performance of Different Impeller Designs in Stirred Vessels Using Computational Fluid Dynamics
Received: 8 January 2018 / Revised: 6 March 2018 / Accepted: 6 March 2018 / Published: 8 March 2018
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Abstract
Design and operation of mixing systems using agitated vessels is a difficult task due to the challenge of obtaining accurate information on impeller-induced turbulence. The use of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) can provide detailed understanding of such systems. In this study, experimental tests
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Design and operation of mixing systems using agitated vessels is a difficult task due to the challenge of obtaining accurate information on impeller-induced turbulence. The use of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) can provide detailed understanding of such systems. In this study, experimental tests and computational fluid dynamics simulations were performed to examine the flow characteristics of four impeller designs (anchor, saw-tooth, counter-flow and Rushton turbine), in achieving solution homogeneity. The impellers were used to mix potassium sulfate granules, from which values of electrical conductivity of the solution were measured and used to estimate the distribution pattern of dissolved solid concentrations within the vessel. CFD models were developed for similar mixing arrangement using commercial software, ANSYS Fluent 18.1 solver and the standard k-epsilon (ε) turbulence model. The Multiple Reference Frame (MRF) approach was used to simulate the impeller rotation. Velocity profiles generated from the simulations were in good agreement with the experimental predictions, as well as with results from previous studies. It was concluded that, through CFD analysis, detailed information can be obtained for optimal design of mixing apparatus. These findings are relevant in choosing the best mixing equipment and provides a basis for scaling up mixing operations in larger systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Challenges and Progress in Turbomachinery Design)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Analytical Expression of Parabolic Trough Solar Collector Performance
Received: 7 February 2018 / Revised: 21 February 2018 / Accepted: 27 February 2018 / Published: 2 March 2018
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Abstract
The parabolic trough collector is one of the most developed solar concentrating technologies for medium and high temperatures (up to 800 K). This solar technology is applied in many applications and so its investigation is common. The objective of this study is to
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The parabolic trough collector is one of the most developed solar concentrating technologies for medium and high temperatures (up to 800 K). This solar technology is applied in many applications and so its investigation is common. The objective of this study is to develop analytical expressions for the determination of the thermal performance of parabolic trough collectors. The non-linear equations of the energy balances in the parabolic trough collector device are simplified using suitable assumptions. The final equation set includes all the possible parameters which influence the system performance and it can be solved directly without computational cost. This model is validated using experimental literature results. Moreover, the developed model is tested using another model written in Engineering Equation Solver under different operating conditions. The impact of the inlet fluid temperature, flow rate, ambient temperature, solar beam irradiation, and the heat transfer coefficient between cover and ambient are the investigated parameters for testing the model accuracy. According to the final results, the thermal efficiency can be found with high accuracy; the deviations are found to be up to 0.2% in the majority of the examined cases. Thus, the results of this work can be used for the quick and accurate thermal analysis of parabolic trough collector. Moreover, the analytical expressions give the possibility for optimizing solar thermal systems driven by parabolic trough collectors with lower computational cost. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Extraction of Structural System Designs from Topologies via Morphological Analysis and Artificial Intelligence
Received: 25 January 2018 / Revised: 8 February 2018 / Accepted: 9 February 2018 / Published: 13 February 2018
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Abstract
Structural system design is the process of giving form to a set of interconnected components subjected to loads and design constraints while navigating a complex design space. While safe designs are relatively easy to develop, optimal designs are not. Modern computational optimization approaches
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Structural system design is the process of giving form to a set of interconnected components subjected to loads and design constraints while navigating a complex design space. While safe designs are relatively easy to develop, optimal designs are not. Modern computational optimization approaches employ population based metaheuristic algorithms to overcome challenges with the system design optimization landscape. However, the choice of the initial population, or ground structure, can have an outsized impact on the resulting optimization. This paper presents a new method of generating such ground structures, using a combination of topology optimization (TO) and a novel system extraction algorithm. Since TO generates monolithic structures, rather than systems, its use for structural system design and optimization has been limited. In this paper, truss systems are extracted from topologies through morphological analysis and artificial intelligence techniques. This algorithm, and its assessment, constitutes the key contribution of this paper. The structural systems obtained are compared with ground truth solutions to evaluate the performance of the algorithms. The generated structures are also compared against benchmark designs from the literature. The results indicate that the presented truss generation algorithm produces structures comparable to those generated through metaheuristic optimization, while mitigating the need for assumptions about initial ground structures. Full article
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Open AccessArticle A Controller Design Based on Takagi-Sugeno Fuzzy Model Employing Trajectory of Partial Uncertainty
Received: 22 December 2017 / Revised: 6 February 2018 / Accepted: 9 February 2018 / Published: 13 February 2018
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Abstract
When the Takagi–Sugeno (T-S) fuzzy model is used to design controllers for a concerned system, the discrepancy between the system and its T-S fuzzy model becomes crucial sometimes in terms of control performance, particularly in cases when the magnitude of the discrepancy is
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When the Takagi–Sugeno (T-S) fuzzy model is used to design controllers for a concerned system, the discrepancy between the system and its T-S fuzzy model becomes crucial sometimes in terms of control performance, particularly in cases when the magnitude of the discrepancy is relatively large. While most existing works have focused on approaches to restrain the influence of the discrepancy, the idea used in this paper is to extract as much information from the discrepancy as possible at first and then use it in the controller design before restraining its influence. By doing so, the magnitude of the discrepancy is reduced accordingly, and thus, better control performance can be expected. Including the discrepancy and other uncertain elements like the inner parameters’ perturbation, a term called uncertainty is considered in this paper. Assuming that the uncertainty influences the system behavior through the state and control input, an observer able to catch the trajectory of the partial uncertainty related to the control input is proposed. Then, a controller employing the trajectory is suggested. All design parameters are obtained by solving certain linear matrix inequalities, which guarantees the system stability. Finally, simulations are provided to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Design of Distributed Multi-Actuator Systems with Incomplete State Information for Vibration Control of Large Structures
Received: 18 December 2017 / Revised: 19 January 2018 / Accepted: 8 February 2018 / Published: 11 February 2018
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Abstract
In this paper, we investigate the design and performance of static feedback controllers with partial-state information for the seismic protection of tall buildings equipped with incomplete multi-actuation systems. The proposed approach considers a partially instrumented multi-story building with an incomplete system of interstory
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In this paper, we investigate the design and performance of static feedback controllers with partial-state information for the seismic protection of tall buildings equipped with incomplete multi-actuation systems. The proposed approach considers a partially instrumented multi-story building with an incomplete system of interstory force–actuation devices implemented on selected levels of the building, and an associated set of collocated sensors that measure the corresponding interstory drifts and interstory velocities. The main elements of the proposed controller design methodology are presented by means of a twenty-story building equipped with a system of ten interstory actuators arranged in three different layouts: concentrated, semi-distributed and fully-distributed. For these control configurations, partial-state controllers are designed following a static output-feedback H-infinity controller design approach, and the corresponding frequency and time responses are investigated. The obtained results clearly indicate that the proposed partial-state controllers are effective in mitigating the building seismic response. They also show that a suitable distribution of the instrumented stories is a relevant factor in the control system performance. Full article
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Open AccessEditorial Acknowledgement to Reviewers of Designs in 2017
Received: 29 January 2018 / Accepted: 29 January 2018 / Published: 30 January 2018
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Abstract
Peer review is an essential part in the publication process, ensuring that Designs maintains high quality standards for its published papers[...] Full article
Open AccessArticle Vehicle Accident Databases: Correctness Checks for Accident Kinematic Data
Received: 5 December 2017 / Revised: 19 January 2018 / Accepted: 23 January 2018 / Published: 26 January 2018
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Abstract
(1) Background: Data collection procedures allow to obtain harmonization of in-depth road accident databases. Plausibility of calculable accident-related kinematic parameters depends on the constraints imposed on calculation, making their uncertainty degree higher than the one for measurable parameters (i.e., traces, airbag activation, etc.).
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(1) Background: Data collection procedures allow to obtain harmonization of in-depth road accident databases. Plausibility of calculable accident-related kinematic parameters depends on the constraints imposed on calculation, making their uncertainty degree higher than the one for measurable parameters (i.e., traces, airbag activation, etc.). Uncertainty translates in information loss, making the statistics based on databases analysis less consistent. Since kinematic parameters describe the global accident dynamics, their correctness assessment has a fundamental importance; (2) Methods: the paper takes as reference data collected in the Initiative for the GLobal harmonisation of Accident Data (IGLAD) database for vehicle-to-vehicle crashes. The procedure, however, has general nature and applies identically for other databases and multiple impacts between vehicles. To highlight issues which can arise in accident-related data collection, 3 different checks are proposed for parameters correctness assessment; (3) Results: by 4 examples, 1 with correct and 3 with incorrect parameters reported, the paper demonstrates that errors can go beyond simple calculation uncertainty, implying that a deeper analysis is desirable in data collection; (4) Conclusions: the step-by-step guidelines described in this paper will help in increasing goodness of collected data, providing for a methodology which can be used by each individual involved in accident data collection, both for collection itself and subsequent verification analysis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Road Vehicle Safety: Design and Assessment)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Adaptive Sliding Mode Control for High-Frequency Sampled-Data Systems with Actuator Faults
Received: 14 December 2017 / Revised: 11 January 2018 / Accepted: 11 January 2018 / Published: 17 January 2018
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Abstract
This paper investigates the sliding mode control for high-frequency sampled-data systems with actuator faults. Besides matched nonlinearity, this paper also considers unmeasurable states and unknown actuator degradation ratio as important factors of the overall system. The estimates of system state vector are obtained
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This paper investigates the sliding mode control for high-frequency sampled-data systems with actuator faults. Besides matched nonlinearity, this paper also considers unmeasurable states and unknown actuator degradation ratio as important factors of the overall system. The estimates of system state vector are obtained by an adaptive sliding mode observer method firstly. Then, a novel integral-type sliding surface, corresponding to the unified closed-loop delta operator system, is provided based on aforementioned estimation values, and the fault closed-loop system is proven to be stable by the proposed sliding mode control law. Finally, the fault-tolerant control theory is verified to be valid via a practical simulation example. Full article
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Open AccessArticle General Design Procedure for Free and Open-Source Hardware for Scientific Equipment
Received: 4 December 2017 / Revised: 20 December 2017 / Accepted: 22 December 2017 / Published: 30 December 2017
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Abstract
Distributed digital manufacturing of free and open-source scientific hardware (FOSH) used for scientific experiments has been shown to in general reduce the costs of scientific hardware by 90–99%. In part due to these cost savings, the manufacturing of scientific equipment is beginning to
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Distributed digital manufacturing of free and open-source scientific hardware (FOSH) used for scientific experiments has been shown to in general reduce the costs of scientific hardware by 90–99%. In part due to these cost savings, the manufacturing of scientific equipment is beginning to move away from a central paradigm of purchasing proprietary equipment to one in which scientists themselves download open-source designs, fabricate components with digital manufacturing technology, and then assemble the equipment themselves. This trend introduces a need for new formal design procedures that designers can follow when targeting this scientific audience. This study provides five steps in the procedure, encompassing six design principles for the development of free and open-source hardware for scientific applications. A case study is provided for an open-source slide dryer that can be easily fabricated for under $20, which is more than 300 times less than some commercial alternatives. The bespoke design is parametric and easily adjusted for many applications. By designing using open-source principles and the proposed procedures, the outcome will be customizable, under control of the researcher, less expensive than commercial options, more maintainable, and will have many applications that benefit the user since the design documentation is open and freely accessible. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Demand Response Design of Domestic Heat Pumps
Received: 23 November 2017 / Revised: 14 December 2017 / Accepted: 19 December 2017 / Published: 23 December 2017
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Abstract
This paper proposes an emergency-based demand response (DR) controller of domestic heat pump (DHP) units based on an estimated frequency of the UK electricity in 2035. The normal pattern of DHP demand is adjusted to maintain system frequency within its limit using a
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This paper proposes an emergency-based demand response (DR) controller of domestic heat pump (DHP) units based on an estimated frequency of the UK electricity in 2035. The normal pattern of DHP demand is adjusted to maintain system frequency within its limit using a linear model of power and temperature inside low-carbon houses, while considering consumer comfort. Simulation results show that the proposed DR design of static/dynamic frequency-controlled DHPs will increase the amount of power reserve by 75% and the amount of electricity market by 70%, as compared to their values of the current frequency response by flexible loads. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Challenges and Progress in Turbomachinery Design)
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