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Fishes 2018, 3(1), 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes3010011

Effects of Harmful Algal Blooms on Fish: Insights from Prymnesium parvum

1
Marine Biological Section, Department of Biology University of Copenhagen, Strandpromenaden 5, 3000 Helsingør, Denmark
2
National Veterinary Institute, Technical University of Denmark, Kemitorvet bld. 202, 2800 Kgs. Lyngby, Denmark
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 29 October 2017 / Revised: 29 January 2018 / Accepted: 5 February 2018 / Published: 14 February 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Aquatic Organisms for Environmental Monitoring)
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Abstract

Blooms of the planktonic alga Prymnesium parvum pose a global threat, causing fish kills worldwide. Early studies on the exposure of fish to P. parvum indicate that toxic effects are related to gill damage. The more strictly defined concept of adverse outcome pathways has been suggested as a replacement for the mode of action in toxicology studies. In this study, rainbow trout (Onchorhyncus mykiss) were exposed to P. parvum. During exposure, oxygen consumption was determined by respirometry, and ventilation and coughing rate were determined via video surveillance. Per breath oxygen consumption was calculated to assess the ventilation effort to obtain a unit of oxygen. A second experiment monitored fish behavior to assess recovery. The results indicated that oxygen consumption initially increased, but on average fell below the standard oxygen consumption at 70% relative exposure. Being a function of ventilation frequency and oxygen consumption, the per breath oxygen consumption decreased throughout exposure. Behavioral results determined that short-term P. parvum exposure subsequently caused the exposed fish to seek flow refuge immediately and to a greater extent than unexposed fish. The adverse outcome pathway of P. parvum on rainbow trout is that P. parvum acts as a gill irritant resulting in non-recoverable respiratory failure. View Full-Text
Keywords: harmful algal bloom; Prymnesium parvum; Onchorhyncus mykiss; fish acute toxicity syndrome; adverse outcome pathway; gill damage; oxygen consumption; ventilation harmful algal bloom; Prymnesium parvum; Onchorhyncus mykiss; fish acute toxicity syndrome; adverse outcome pathway; gill damage; oxygen consumption; ventilation
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Svendsen, M.B.S.; Andersen, N.R.; Hansen, P.J.; Steffensen, J.F. Effects of Harmful Algal Blooms on Fish: Insights from Prymnesium parvum. Fishes 2018, 3, 11.

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