Next Article in Journal
Mugilids Display Distinct Trait-Mediated Patterns with a Reinvasion of Para Grass Urochloa mutica in a Tropical Estuary
Previous Article in Journal
Distribution, Spread, and Habitat Predictability of a Small, Invasive, Piscivorous Fish in an Important Estuarine Fish Nursery
Previous Article in Special Issue
Partial Characterization of Digestive Proteases in the Green Cichlid, Cichlasoma beani
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessReview
Fishes 2017, 2(2), 5; doi:10.3390/fishes2020005

Macronutrient Requirements of Silvery-Black Porgy (Sparidentex hasta): A Comparison with Other Farmed Sparid Species

1
South Iranian Aquaculture Research Center, P.O. Box 669 Ahwaz, Iran
2
Artemia and Aquatic Research Institute, Urmia University, 57135 Urmia, Iran
3
Institut de Recerca i Tecnologia Agroalimentaries, Centre de Sant Carles de la Rápita (IRTA-SCR), Unitat de Cultius Experimentals, 43540 Sant Carles de la Ràpita, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Francisco J. Moyano
Received: 31 January 2017 / Revised: 4 May 2017 / Accepted: 5 May 2017 / Published: 13 May 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutritional Requirements in New Fish Species Under Culture)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [314 KB, uploaded 24 May 2017]

Abstract

Silvery-black porgy (Sparidentex hasta) is recognized as one of the most promising fish species for aquaculture diversification in the Persian Gulf and the Oman Sea regions. In this regard, S. hasta has received considerable attention, and nutritional studies focused on establishing the nutritional requirements for improving diet formulation have been conducted during recent years. Considering the results from different dose–response nutritional studies on macronutrient requirements conducted in this species, it can be concluded that diets containing ca. 48% crude protein, 15% crude lipid, 15% carbohydrates and 20 KJ g−1 gross energy are recommended for on-growing S. hasta juveniles. In addition, the optimum essential amino acid profile for this species (expressed as g 16 g N−1), should be approximately arginine 5.3, lysine 6.0, threonine 5.2, histidine 2.5, isoleucine 4.6, leucine 5.4, methionine + cysteine 4.0 (in a diet containing 0.6 cysteine), phenylalanine + tyrosine 5.6 (in a diet containing 1.9 tyrosine), tryptophan 1.0 and valine 4.6. Moreover, the optimum dietary n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids and soybean lecithin are recommended to be 0.8% and 6%, respectively. The maximum replacement of fish meal with soy protein is recommended to be between 16.5% and 27.3%. In addition, different vegetal oil sources are also recommended for partial and almost complete replacement of fish oil in diets. Although the nutritional requirements in terms of macronutrients have been established under laboratory conditions, the analysis of the available literature indicate that future studies need to be conducted using a more holistic approach under intensive farming conditions in which different nutrients or additives need to be tested under different rearing conditions for refining nutrient requirements in this species. View Full-Text
Keywords: protein sources; lipids; fish meal substitution; essential amino acids; essential fatty acids; sobaity sea bream protein sources; lipids; fish meal substitution; essential amino acids; essential fatty acids; sobaity sea bream
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Torfi Mozanzadeh, M.; Marammazi, J.G.; Yaghoubi, M.; Agh, N.; Pagheh, E.; Gisbert, E. Macronutrient Requirements of Silvery-Black Porgy (Sparidentex hasta): A Comparison with Other Farmed Sparid Species. Fishes 2017, 2, 5.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Fishes EISSN 2410-3888 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top