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Philosophies, Volume 2, Issue 3 (September 2017)

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Open AccessArticle A New Kind of Aesthetics —The Mathematical Structure of the Aesthetic
Philosophies 2017, 2(3), 14; doi:10.3390/philosophies2030014
Received: 5 December 2016 / Revised: 17 June 2017 / Accepted: 27 June 2017 / Published: 30 June 2017
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Abstract
This paper proposes a new approach to the investigation into aesthetics. Specifically, it~argues that it is possible to explain the aesthetic and its underlying dynamic relations with an~axiomatic structure (the octahedral axiom-derived category) based on contemporary mathematics (namely category theory), and through this
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This paper proposes a new approach to the investigation into aesthetics. Specifically, it~argues that it is possible to explain the aesthetic and its underlying dynamic relations with an~axiomatic structure (the octahedral axiom-derived category) based on contemporary mathematics (namely category theory), and through this argument suggests the possibility for discussion about the mathematical structure of the aesthetic. If there were a way to describe the structure of the aesthetic with the language of mathematical structures and mathematical axioms---a~language completely devoid of arbitrariness---then we would make possible a universal argument about the essential human activity of ``the aesthetic'', and we would also gain a new method and viewpoint into the philosophy and meaning of the act of creating a work of art and artistic activities. This paper presents one mathematical structure as a foundation in constructing the science of dynamic aesthetics based on axiomatic functionalism, which is in turn based on a new interdisciplinary investigation into the generative structure of the aesthetic. Full article
Open AccessArticle Political Correctness—Between Fiction and Social Reality
Philosophies 2017, 2(3), 15; doi:10.3390/philosophies2030015
Received: 16 September 2016 / Revised: 30 May 2017 / Accepted: 27 June 2017 / Published: 4 July 2017
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Abstract
Nowadays political correctness (PC) is blamed by its opponents because of a failed model of multiculturalism, an influx of migrants and the threat of terrorist acts. Obviously, a definition of tolerance given by UNESCO in 1995 has lost its meaning. In order to
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Nowadays political correctness (PC) is blamed by its opponents because of a failed model of multiculturalism, an influx of migrants and the threat of terrorist acts. Obviously, a definition of tolerance given by UNESCO in 1995 has lost its meaning. In order to argue a possibility of a global ethos based on new understandings of PC, the authors refer to contemporary achievements of semiotics, hermeneutics and philosophical anthropology. We use a critical method developed in the hermeneutical tradition of P. Ricoeur, J. Kristeva, Tz. Todorov and others. Criticism is directed at (1) paradoxes of postmodern philosophical attempts for justification the idea of political correctness; (2) the way of introducing new terminology, as on a language level it leads, not to inclusion, but to exclusion, of disadvantaged people because as E. Benveniste states, the third person is rather the non-person. The conclusion is that politically correct speech should be grounded on a basis which takes into account the three persons of verb conjugation. Similar philosophical and ethical ideas can be found in works of J. Kristeva, Tz. Todorov, P. Ricoeur. An example is given for how these ideas can be implemented in the fields of film and art. This is one of the possible ways of overcoming the exclusion of disadvantaged people who are only named in politically correct terms, and not as participants, in social and political dialogue. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Political Correctness—Towards a Global Ethos)
Open AccessArticle Category Theory Approach to Solution Searching Based on Photoexcitation Transfer Dynamics
Philosophies 2017, 2(3), 16; doi:10.3390/philosophies2030016
Received: 8 December 2016 / Revised: 19 June 2017 / Accepted: 7 July 2017 / Published: 11 July 2017
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Abstract
Solution searching that accompanies combinatorial explosion is one of the most important issues in the age of artificial intelligence. Natural intelligence, which exploits natural processes for intelligent functions, is expected to help resolve or alleviate the difficulties of conventional computing paradigms and technologies.
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Solution searching that accompanies combinatorial explosion is one of the most important issues in the age of artificial intelligence. Natural intelligence, which exploits natural processes for intelligent functions, is expected to help resolve or alleviate the difficulties of conventional computing paradigms and technologies. In fact, we have shown that a single-celled organism such as an amoeba can solve constraint satisfaction problems and related optimization problems as well as demonstrate experimental systems based on non-organic systems such as optical energy transfer involving near-field interactions. However, the fundamental mechanisms and limitations behind solution searching based on natural processes have not yet been understood. Herein, we present a theoretical background of solution searching based on optical excitation transfer from a category-theoretic standpoint. One important indication inspired by the category theory is that the satisfaction of short exact sequences is critical for an adequate computational operation that determines the flow of time for the system and is termed as “short-exact-sequence-based time.” In addition, the octahedral and braid structures known in triangulated categories provide a clear understanding of the underlying mechanisms, including a quantitative indication of the difficulties of obtaining solutions based on homology dimension. This study contributes to providing a fundamental background of natural intelligence. Full article
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Open AccessArticle The Unreasonable Destructiveness of Political Correctness in Philosophy
Philosophies 2017, 2(3), 17; doi:10.3390/philosophies2030017
Received: 14 March 2017 / Revised: 12 June 2017 / Accepted: 26 June 2017 / Published: 3 August 2017
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Abstract
I submit that epistemic progress in key areas of contemporary academic philosophy has been compromised by politically correct (“PC”) ideology. First, guided by an evolutionary account of ideology, results from social and cognitive psychology and formal philosophical methods, I expose evidence for political
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I submit that epistemic progress in key areas of contemporary academic philosophy has been compromised by politically correct (“PC”) ideology. First, guided by an evolutionary account of ideology, results from social and cognitive psychology and formal philosophical methods, I expose evidence for political bias in contemporary Western academia and sketch a formalization for the contents of beliefs from the PC worldview taken to be of core importance, the theory of social oppression and the thesis of anthropological mental egalitarianism. Then, aided by discussions from contemporary epistemology on epistemic values, I model the problem of epistemic appraisal using the frameworks of multi-objective optimization theory and multi-criteria decision analysis and apply it to politically correct philosophy. I conclude that philosophy guided by politically correct values is bound to produce constructs that are less truth-conducive and that spurious values which are ideologically motivated should be abandoned. Objections to my framework stemming from contextual empiricism, the feminine voice in ethics and political philosophy are considered. I conclude by prescribing the epistemic value of epistemic adequacy, the contextual value of political diversity and the moral virtue of moral courage to reverse unwarranted trends in academic philosophy due to PC ideology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Political Correctness—Towards a Global Ethos)
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Open AccessArticle Political Correctness: Implosion of Politics
Philosophies 2017, 2(3), 18; doi:10.3390/philosophies2030018
Received: 25 May 2017 / Revised: 29 July 2017 / Accepted: 3 August 2017 / Published: 8 August 2017
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Abstract
The purpose of this article is to develop a critical understanding of political correctness as regressive process of incrimination based on a utopia of non-differentiation. According to our hypothesis, this utopia represents the ideological product of a double process of identity dissolution under
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The purpose of this article is to develop a critical understanding of political correctness as regressive process of incrimination based on a utopia of non-differentiation. According to our hypothesis, this utopia represents the ideological product of a double process of identity dissolution under the impact of abstract universalism and contemporary individualism which leads to the implosion of politics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Political Correctness—Towards a Global Ethos)
Open AccessArticle Swarm Intelligence via the Internet of Things and the Phenomenological Turn
Philosophies 2017, 2(3), 19; doi:10.3390/philosophies2030019
Received: 2 June 2017 / Revised: 27 July 2017 / Accepted: 31 July 2017 / Published: 23 August 2017
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Abstract
Considering the current advancements in biometric sensors and other related technologies, as well as the use of bio-inspired models for AI improvements, we can infer that the swarm intelligence paradigm can be implemented in human daily spheres through the connectivity between user gadgets
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Considering the current advancements in biometric sensors and other related technologies, as well as the use of bio-inspired models for AI improvements, we can infer that the swarm intelligence paradigm can be implemented in human daily spheres through the connectivity between user gadgets connected to the Internet of Things. This is a first step towards a real Ambient Intelligence, but also of a Global Intelligence. This unconscious (by the user) connectivity may alter the way by which we feel the world. Besides, with the arrival of new augmented ways of capturing and providing information or radical new ways of expanding our bodies (through synthetic biology or artificial prosthesis like brain–computer connections), we can be very close to a change which may radically affect our experience of ourselves and of the feeling of collectivity. We call it the techno-phenomenological turn. We show social implications, present challenges, and and open questions for the new kind of swarm intelligence-enhanced society, and provide the taxonomy of the field of study. We will also explore the possible roadmaps of this next possible situation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cyberphenomenology: Technominds Revolution)
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Open AccessArticle The Interpretation of Probability: Still an Open Issue? 1
Philosophies 2017, 2(3), 20; doi:10.3390/philosophies2030020
Received: 19 July 2017 / Revised: 18 August 2017 / Accepted: 19 August 2017 / Published: 29 August 2017
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Abstract
Probability as understood today, namely as a quantitative notion expressible by means of a function ranging in the interval between 0–1, took shape in the mid-17th century, and presents both a mathematical and a philosophical aspect. Of these two sides, the second is
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Probability as understood today, namely as a quantitative notion expressible by means of a function ranging in the interval between 0–1, took shape in the mid-17th century, and presents both a mathematical and a philosophical aspect. Of these two sides, the second is by far the most controversial, and fuels a heated debate, still ongoing. After a short historical sketch of the birth and developments of probability, its major interpretations are outlined, by referring to the work of their most prominent representatives. The final section addresses the question of whether any of such interpretations can presently be considered predominant, which is answered in the negative. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Logic, Inference, Probability and Paradox)

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Open AccessConcept Paper Operators in Nature, Science, Technology, and Society: Mathematical, Logical, and Philosophical Issues
Philosophies 2017, 2(3), 21; doi:10.3390/philosophies2030021
Received: 10 May 2017 / Revised: 15 August 2017 / Accepted: 16 August 2017 / Published: 7 September 2017
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Abstract
The concept of an operator is used in a variety of practical and theoretical areas. Operators, as both conceptual and physical entities, are found throughout the world as subsystems in nature, the human mind, and the manmade world. Operators, and what they operate,
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The concept of an operator is used in a variety of practical and theoretical areas. Operators, as both conceptual and physical entities, are found throughout the world as subsystems in nature, the human mind, and the manmade world. Operators, and what they operate, i.e., their substrates, targets, or operands, have a wide variety of forms, functions, and properties. Operators have explicit philosophical significance. On the one hand, they represent important ontological issues of reality. On the other hand, epistemological operators form the basic mechanism of cognition. At the same time, there is no unified theory of the nature and functions of operators. In this work, we elaborate a detailed analysis of operators, which range from the most abstract formal structures and symbols in mathematics and logic to real entities, human and machine, and are responsible for effecting changes at both the individual and collective human levels. Our goal is to find what is common in physical objects called operators and abstract mathematical structures, with the name operator providing foundations for building a unified but flexible theory of operators. The paper concludes with some reflections on functionalism and other philosophical aspects of the ‘operation’ of operators. Full article
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