Next Issue
Previous Issue

Table of Contents

Philosophies, Volume 2, Issue 2 (June 2017), Page 1

  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Readerexternal link to open them.
View options order results:
result details:
Displaying articles 1-7
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Open AccessArticle Plenty of Fish in the Academy: On Marshall McLuhan’s Prose as an Anti-Environment
Philosophies 2017, 2(2), 7; doi:10.3390/philosophies2020007
Received: 12 November 2016 / Revised: 26 February 2017 / Accepted: 3 March 2017 / Published: 23 March 2017
PDF Full-text (165 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The purpose of this synthesis is to deconstruct the medium of Marshall McLuhan’s prose as an anti-environment for the medium of traditional academic writing. By placing McLuhan’s own theory in dialogue with the founding principles of linguistic anthropology, I will argue that McLuhan’s
[...] Read more.
The purpose of this synthesis is to deconstruct the medium of Marshall McLuhan’s prose as an anti-environment for the medium of traditional academic writing. By placing McLuhan’s own theory in dialogue with the founding principles of linguistic anthropology, I will argue that McLuhan’s authorial tactics—a subject of his long-term repudiation by the academic community on the whole—adhered to the tenets of the Electric Age, and were thus inherently incomprehensible to those who negotiated academic prose as a medium locked within the media environment of the Print Age. Full article
Open AccessArticle What We Talk about When We Talk about Logic as Normative for Reasoning
Philosophies 2017, 2(2), 8; doi:10.3390/philosophies2020008
Received: 31 December 2016 / Revised: 13 March 2017 / Accepted: 20 March 2017 / Published: 24 March 2017
PDF Full-text (186 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this paper, it is examined how, if at all, the logical laws can be normative for human reasoning, wherein the notion of normativity is analyzed primarily with respect to Wittgenstein’s philosophy. During the ancient and the medieval periods, logic was being considered
[...] Read more.
In this paper, it is examined how, if at all, the logical laws can be normative for human reasoning, wherein the notion of normativity is analyzed primarily with respect to Wittgenstein’s philosophy. During the ancient and the medieval periods, logic was being considered in terms of discourse and dialogical practice, but since Descartes and especially Kant, it has been treated as a system of laws with which the process of individual human reasoning has been compared. Therefore, normativity can be investigated in the private sphere (for thinking and reasoning) and in the public sphere (for dialogic practices in a community). Wittgenstein discussed both aspects of normativity: in his early philosophy, the focus is on the laws of logic that are primarily normative for the state of affairs in the world, while in his later works the emphasis is on a social aspect of normativity (which is closer to Aristotle’s view), which is derived from the adopted rules that have been applied in a certain community. Taken that way, logic is certainly normative in the public sphere, but the more difficult issue is whether logic is normative for thinking, regarding the difference between the logical laws and those of thought. Full article
Open AccessArticle The Spiral Structure of Marshall McLuhan’s Thinking
Philosophies 2017, 2(2), 9; doi:10.3390/philosophies2020009
Received: 9 February 2017 / Revised: 18 March 2017 / Accepted: 26 March 2017 / Published: 4 April 2017
PDF Full-text (324 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We examine the spiral structure of the thinking and the work of Marshall McLuhan, which we believe will provide a new way of viewing McLuhan’s work. In particular, we believe that the way he reversed figure and ground, reversed content and medium, reversed
[...] Read more.
We examine the spiral structure of the thinking and the work of Marshall McLuhan, which we believe will provide a new way of viewing McLuhan’s work. In particular, we believe that the way he reversed figure and ground, reversed content and medium, reversed cause and effect, and the relationship he established between the content of a new medium and the older media it obsolesced all contain a spiral structure going back and forth in time. Finally, the time structure of his Laws of Media in which a new medium obsolesced an older medium, while retrieving an even older medium and then when pushed far enough flipped into a still newer medium has the feeling of a spiral. We will also examine the spiral structure of the thinking and work of those thinkers and artists that most influenced McLuhan such as Vico, Hegel, Marx, Freud, Joyce, TS Eliot, Wyndham Lewis and the Vorticism movement. Full article
Open AccessArticle An Ontological Solution to the Mind-Body Problem
Philosophies 2017, 2(2), 10; doi:10.3390/philosophies2020010
Received: 23 February 2017 / Revised: 17 April 2017 / Accepted: 18 April 2017 / Published: 20 April 2017
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (933 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
I argue for an idealist ontology consistent with empirical observations, which seeks to explain the facts of nature more parsimoniously than physicalism and bottom-up panpsychism. This ontology also attempts to offer more explanatory power than both physicalism and bottom-up panpsychism, in that it
[...] Read more.
I argue for an idealist ontology consistent with empirical observations, which seeks to explain the facts of nature more parsimoniously than physicalism and bottom-up panpsychism. This ontology also attempts to offer more explanatory power than both physicalism and bottom-up panpsychism, in that it does not fall prey to either the ‘hard problem of consciousness’ or the ‘subject combination problem’, respectively. It can be summarized as follows: spatially unbound consciousness is posited to be nature’s sole ontological primitive. We, as well as all other living organisms, are dissociated alters of this unbound consciousness. The universe we see around us is the extrinsic appearance of phenomenality surrounding—but dissociated from—our alter. The living organisms we share the world with are the extrinsic appearances of other dissociated alters. As such, the challenge to artificially create individualized consciousness becomes synonymous with the challenge to artificially induce abiogenesis. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Entrance Fees and a Bayesian Approach to the St. Petersburg Paradox
Philosophies 2017, 2(2), 11; doi:10.3390/philosophies2020011
Received: 16 February 2017 / Revised: 2 May 2017 / Accepted: 4 May 2017 / Published: 10 May 2017
PDF Full-text (442 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In An Introduction to Probability Theory and its Applications, W. Feller established a way of ending the St. Petersburg paradox by the introduction of an entrance fee, and provided it for the case in which the game is played with a fair
[...] Read more.
In An Introduction to Probability Theory and its Applications, W. Feller established a way of ending the St. Petersburg paradox by the introduction of an entrance fee, and provided it for the case in which the game is played with a fair coin. A natural generalization of his method is to establish the entrance fee for the case in which the probability of heads is θ ( 0 < θ < 1 / 2 ) . The deduction of those fees is the main result of Section 2. We then propose a Bayesian approach to the problem. When the probability of heads is θ ( 1 / 2 < θ < 1 ) the expected gain of the St. Petersburg game is finite, therefore there is no paradox. However, if one takes θ as a random variable assuming values in ( 1 / 2 , 1 ) the paradox may hold, which is counter-intuitive. In Section 3 we determine necessary conditions for the absence of paradox in the Bayesian approach and in Section 4 we establish the entrance fee for the case in which θ is uniformly distributed in ( 1 / 2 , 1 ) , for in this case there is a paradox. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Logic, Inference, Probability and Paradox)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Implicit Bias, Stereotype Threat, and Political Correctness in Philosophy
Philosophies 2017, 2(2), 12; doi:10.3390/philosophies2020012
Received: 13 October 2016 / Revised: 10 April 2017 / Accepted: 8 May 2017 / Published: 24 May 2017
PDF Full-text (239 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper offers an unorthodox appraisal of empirical research bearing on the question of the low representation of women in philosophy. It contends that fashionable views in the profession concerning implicit bias and stereotype threat are weakly supported, that philosophers often fail to
[...] Read more.
This paper offers an unorthodox appraisal of empirical research bearing on the question of the low representation of women in philosophy. It contends that fashionable views in the profession concerning implicit bias and stereotype threat are weakly supported, that philosophers often fail to report the empirical work responsibly, and that the standards for evidence are set very low—so long as you take a certain viewpoint. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Political Correctness—Towards a Global Ethos)
Open AccessArticle “Political Correctness” from a “Border Reason”: Between Dignity and the Shadow of Exclusion
Philosophies 2017, 2(2), 13; doi:10.3390/philosophies2020013
Received: 16 September 2016 / Revised: 8 May 2017 / Accepted: 5 June 2017 / Published: 14 June 2017
PDF Full-text (231 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The concept of political correctness highlights a set of principles and structures that should (or, in other cases, must) be followed to pursue a specific social behavior that characterizes a society and endorses an ideal identity. Nevertheless, even when this behavior implies a
[...] Read more.
The concept of political correctness highlights a set of principles and structures that should (or, in other cases, must) be followed to pursue a specific social behavior that characterizes a society and endorses an ideal identity. Nevertheless, even when this behavior implies a sense of social recognition and acceptance by a specific group, it also encompasses a risk of imposing a particular model of life, halting the emergence of criticisms and differences as far as it could be misguided to promote discrimination and exclusion. All of these raise the question of whether it is possible to conceive political correctness from a perspective of inclusion that transcends this layer of exclusion. If this is the case, following Eugenio Trías’ philosophy about the limit, the concept needs to be reconsidered through a “border reason” that enables one to conceive the benefits it brings as well as the criticisms that come from the analysis of the “shadowy” practice of the concept. This approach will lead to accepting that political correctness fulfills a function for society but that it requires a reflexive attitude along with its practices as part of a border relation between its benefits and the risks that it also has to tackle. Finally, a concept that could serve as a hinge to reinforce the perspective of a border limit is dignity, which could lead to an ethical reflection that underpins politically correct actions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Political Correctness—Towards a Global Ethos)

Journal Contact

MDPI AG
Philosophies Editorial Office
St. Alban-Anlage 66, 4052 Basel, Switzerland
E-Mail: 
Tel. +41 61 683 77 34
Fax: +41 61 302 89 18
Editorial Board
Contact Details Submit to Philosophies Edit a special issue Review for Philosophies
logo
loading...
Back to Top