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Safety, Volume 2, Issue 4 (December 2016)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Pike River Mine Disaster: Systems-Engineering and Organisational Contributions
Safety 2016, 2(4), 21; doi:10.3390/safety2040021
Received: 13 May 2016 / Revised: 24 August 2016 / Accepted: 10 October 2016 / Published: 19 October 2016
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Abstract
The Pike River mine (PRM), an underground coal mine in New Zealand (NZ), exploded in 2010. This paper analyses the causes of the disaster, with a particular focus on the systems engineering and organisational contributions. Poor systems-engineering contributed via poorly designed ventilation, use
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The Pike River mine (PRM), an underground coal mine in New Zealand (NZ), exploded in 2010. This paper analyses the causes of the disaster, with a particular focus on the systems engineering and organisational contributions. Poor systems-engineering contributed via poorly designed ventilation, use of power-electronics underground, and placement of the main ventilation fan underground. Management rushed prematurely into production even though the technology development in the mine was incomplete. Investment in non-productive infrastructure was deprioritised resulting in inadequate ventilation, and the lack of a viable second emergency egress. The risk assessments were deficient, incomplete, or not actioned. Warnings and feedback from staff were ignored. Risk arises as a consequence of the complex interactions between the components of the sociotechnical system. Organisations will need to strengthen the integrity of their risk management processes at engineering, management, and board levels. The systems engineering perspective shows the interacting causality between the engineering challenges (ventilation, mining method, electrical power), project deliverables, management priorities, organisational culture, and workers’ behaviour. Use of the barrier method provides a new way to examine the risk-management strategies of the mine. The breakdowns in organisational safety management systems are explicitly identified. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Exploring the Use of Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) for Reducing Rider Stress and Stress-Related Anxiety, Anger, and Worry
Safety 2016, 2(4), 22; doi:10.3390/safety2040022
Received: 29 April 2016 / Revised: 25 August 2016 / Accepted: 9 October 2016 / Published: 20 October 2016
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Abstract
Stress can have serious implications on road safety and evidence suggests that it could lead to increases in driving errors, lapses, and even crashes. Motorcyclists are a vulnerable road user group, and lapses in attention and risky behaviours resulting from stress could increase
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Stress can have serious implications on road safety and evidence suggests that it could lead to increases in driving errors, lapses, and even crashes. Motorcyclists are a vulnerable road user group, and lapses in attention and risky behaviours resulting from stress could increase the risk of collision. However, few safety interventions for reducing stress have been developed and evaluated, especially in motorcyclists. The purpose of this research was to develop and pilot a Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) course for the treatment of rider stress. Five motorcyclists experiencing a range of life and work stressors completed the CBT course between January and March 2015. Findings from the Driver Stress Inventory and Driver Behaviour Questionnaire showed positive trends in the overall reduction of rider stress traits, such as aggression, thrill seeking, and dislike of riding. Qualitative data showed that participants engaged well with the intervention and believed it had aided them in their riding-related stress. Although these results are promising, the results warrant further investigation in order to validate CBT as a viable means of reducing the collision risk both for this already vulnerable road user group and other driver categories. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Driver/Rider Training)
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Open AccessArticle Stress, Depression, and Occupational Injury among Migrant Farmworkers in Nebraska
Safety 2016, 2(4), 23; doi:10.3390/safety2040023
Received: 23 May 2016 / Revised: 10 October 2016 / Accepted: 18 October 2016 / Published: 22 October 2016
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Abstract
Agriculture is one of the most dangerous industries in the United States. Farmworkers, including migrant farmworkers, are at risk for work-related injuries. This study explores the association between stress, depression, and occupational injury among migrant farmworkers in Nebraska. Occupational injury was hypothesized to
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Agriculture is one of the most dangerous industries in the United States. Farmworkers, including migrant farmworkers, are at risk for work-related injuries. This study explores the association between stress, depression, and occupational injury among migrant farmworkers in Nebraska. Occupational injury was hypothesized to significantly increase the odds of farmworkers being stressed and depressed. Two hundred migrant farmworkers (mean age = 33.5 years, standard deviation (SD) = 12.53; 93.0% men, 92.9% of Mexican descent) were interviewed. In bivariate analyses, results indicated that stress and depression were positively associated with occupational injury. Two logistic regression models were developed. Occupational injury was a significant factor for depression, but not for stress. Participants who had been injured on the job were over seven times more likely to be depressed. These results highlight the interconnection between the work environment and mental health. More must be done to foster well-being in rural, agricultural communities. Improving occupational health and safety information and training, integrating behavioral health services into primary care settings, and strengthening the protections of the Migrant and Seasonal Agricultural Worker Protection Act may improve conditions for migrant farmworkers in the rural Midwest. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Agricultural Safety and Health)
Open AccessArticle Perception of Job-Related Risk, Training, and Use of Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) among Latino Immigrant Hog CAFO Workers in Missouri: A Pilot Study
Safety 2016, 2(4), 25; doi:10.3390/safety2040025
Received: 30 June 2016 / Revised: 2 November 2016 / Accepted: 4 November 2016 / Published: 9 November 2016
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Abstract
Hog production in the United States is a large industry that has seen dramatic changes over the last few decades. Concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) are growing in number throughout the country. This pilot study explores the perception of risk, receipt of work-related
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Hog production in the United States is a large industry that has seen dramatic changes over the last few decades. Concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) are growing in number throughout the country. This pilot study explores the perception of risk, receipt of work-related training, provision and usage of personal protective equipment (PPE), and prevention preferences of Latino immigrant hog CAFO workers in Missouri. Forty workers (M age = 36.08 years, SD = 10.04; 92.5% male; 70.0% Mexican) were interviewed. Results indicate that most workers did not perceive their job as dangerous. Limited English proficient workers were significantly less likely to report receiving any work-related training. Although most workers had access to employer provided PPE, usage was inconsistent. As the demographic composition of the farmworker population in the Midwest becomes increasingly comprised of hired immigrant workers, it will be imperative to develop occupational safety and health educational and outreach efforts focused on the needs of these workers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Agricultural Safety and Health)
Open AccessArticle The Effect of Sharrows, Painted Bicycle Lanes and Physically Protected Paths on the Severity of Bicycle Injuries Caused by Motor Vehicles
Safety 2016, 2(4), 26; doi:10.3390/safety2040026
Received: 21 February 2016 / Revised: 28 November 2016 / Accepted: 5 December 2016 / Published: 10 December 2016
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Abstract
We conducted individual and ecologic analyses of prospectively collected data from 839 injured bicyclists who collided with motorized vehicles and presented to Bellevue Hospital, an urban Level-1 trauma center in New York City, from December 2008 to August 2014. Variables included demographics, scene
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We conducted individual and ecologic analyses of prospectively collected data from 839 injured bicyclists who collided with motorized vehicles and presented to Bellevue Hospital, an urban Level-1 trauma center in New York City, from December 2008 to August 2014. Variables included demographics, scene information, rider behaviors, bicycle route availability, and whether the collision occurred before the road segment was converted to a bicycle route. We used negative binomial modeling to assess the risk of injury occurrence following bicycle path or lane implementation. We dichotomized U.S. National Trauma Data Bank Injury Severity Scores (ISS) into none/mild (0–8) versus moderate, severe, or critical (>8) and used adjusted multivariable logistic regression to model the association of ISS with collision proximity to sharrows (i.e., bicycle lanes designated for sharing with cars), painted bicycle lanes, or physically protected paths. Negative binomial modeling of monthly counts, while adjusting for pedestrian activity, revealed that physically protected paths were associated with 23% fewer injuries. Painted bicycle lanes reduced injury risk by nearly 90% (IDR 0.09, 95% CI 0.02–0.33). Holding all else equal, compared to no bicycle route, a bicycle injury nearby sharrows was nearly twice as likely to be moderate, severe, or critical (adjusted odds ratio 1.94; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.91–4.15). Painted bicycle lanes and physically protected paths were 1.52 (95% CI 0.85–2.71) and 1.66 (95% CI 0.85–3.22) times as likely to be associated with more than mild injury respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Return of Cycling—Safety Implications)
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Review

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Open AccessReview Ocular and Orbital Injury in All-Terrain Vehicles: A Literature Review
Safety 2016, 2(4), 24; doi:10.3390/safety2040024
Received: 3 November 2015 / Revised: 12 October 2016 / Accepted: 17 October 2016 / Published: 26 October 2016
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Abstract
Purpose: To review primary literature on ocular and orbital injury secondary to all-terrain vehicles (ATVs). Methods: A Medline search of English language literature. Results: Very few studies detail ocular and orbital manifestations of ATV crashes. The most common ocular injuries included orbital fractures
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Purpose: To review primary literature on ocular and orbital injury secondary to all-terrain vehicles (ATVs). Methods: A Medline search of English language literature. Results: Very few studies detail ocular and orbital manifestations of ATV crashes. The most common ocular injuries included orbital fractures and eyelid lacerations. Less common but more severe injuries included traumatic optic neuropathy, retinal detachment, optic nerve laceration, and ruptured globe. Associated facial and skull bone fractures, traumatic brain injury, and subdural/subarachnoid hemorrhage were not uncommon. Depending on the mechanism and force of injury, complete loss of vision has been documented. Conclusion: Ocular and orbital trauma can be found in many cases of ATV-related injury. Various interventions may decrease the frequency of such injuries, including use of head and eye protection. Full article

Other

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Open AccessCommentary Learning to Drive Safely: Reasonable Expectations and Future Directions for the Learner Period
Safety 2016, 2(4), 20; doi:10.3390/safety2040020
Received: 29 April 2016 / Revised: 16 September 2016 / Accepted: 9 October 2016 / Published: 19 October 2016
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (400 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The young driver problem is typified by high crash rates early in licensure that decline with experience, but are higher initially and decline more slowly for the youngest novices. Despite considerable effort, only Graduated Driver Licensing System (GDLS) policies have been shown to
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The young driver problem is typified by high crash rates early in licensure that decline with experience, but are higher initially and decline more slowly for the youngest novices. Despite considerable effort, only Graduated Driver Licensing System (GDLS) policies have been shown to improve novice young driver safety outcomes. Unfortunately, GDLS policies are mostly limited to countries with a relatively young licensure age. Meanwhile, it is not entirely clear how GDLS and other young driver transportation safety efforts, including driver training and testing, supervised practice and parental management of young drivers, can best be configured. Notably, professional training can foster improvements in vehicle management skills that are necessary, but do not assure safe driving behavior. Substantial recent research has focused on training methods to improve driving skills, but the safety benefits of driver training have not been established. While prolonged practice driving increases experience and provides supervisors with opportunities to prepare novices for independent driving, the transition to independent driving challenges novices to employ, on their own, poorly-mastered skills under unfamiliar and complex driving conditions. Licensing policies and parental management practices can limit the complexity of driving conditions while novices gain needed driving experience. Nevertheless, an emerging body of literature suggests that future advances in training and supervision of novice teenage drivers might best focus on the translation of learning to independent driving by fostering safe driving attitudes and norms, judgment, dedicated attention to driving tasks and self-control at the wheel. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Driver/Rider Training)
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