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Safety 2016, 2(1), 1; doi:10.3390/safety2010001

The Effect of Passengers on All-Terrain Vehicle Crash Mechanisms and Injuries

1
Department of Emergency Medicine, University of Iowa Carver College of Medicine, 200 Hawkins Drive, 1008 RCP, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA
2
Department of Emergency Medicine, University of Iowa Hospital and Clinics, and the Iowa Injury Prevention Research Center, 200 Hawkins Drive, 1008 RCP, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA
3
Division of Pediatric Surgery, Department of Surgery, University of Iowa Children’s Hospital, 200 Hawkins Drive, 2964 JCP, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Raphael Grzebieta
Received: 31 October 2015 / Revised: 23 December 2015 / Accepted: 15 January 2016 / Published: 20 January 2016
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [190 KB, uploaded 20 January 2016]

Abstract

Traditional all-terrain vehicles (ATVs) are designed for single riders. Although carrying passengers is a known risk factor for injury, how passengers contribute to ATV crashes remains poorly understood. To address this question, we performed a retrospective chart review of ATV crash victims at a U.S. trauma center (2002–2013). Of 537 cases, 20% were passengers or drivers with passengers. The odds of backward rollovers, falls/ejections, crashes on sloped terrain, and collisions with motorized vehicles were all significantly greater when passengers were present. In contrast, the odds of self-ejection or falls/ejections over the handlebars were significantly lower than falls/ejections to the side or rear, in crashes with multiple riders. Among all ejections, self-ejections had the lowest head and highest extremity injury scores and being ejected over the handlebars or to the rear resulted in worse head injury scores than being ejected to the side. In summary, our study found that passengers increased the odds of specific crash and injury mechanisms and that head and extremity injury severity varied by ejection type. Safety interventions including seat design changes that prevent carrying passengers, and a strict, well-enforced no-rider rule are needed to effectively prevent passenger–related deaths and injuries. View Full-Text
Keywords: all-terrain vehicle; injury prevention; passengers; adolescent behavior; rural; safety; helmet all-terrain vehicle; injury prevention; passengers; adolescent behavior; rural; safety; helmet
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Jennissen, C.A.; Harland, K.K.; Wetjen, K.M.; Denning, G.M. The Effect of Passengers on All-Terrain Vehicle Crash Mechanisms and Injuries. Safety 2016, 2, 1.

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