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J. Imaging 2017, 3(4), 53; doi:10.3390/jimaging3040053

Alpha Channel Fragile Watermarking for Color Image Integrity Protection

1
Department of Computer Science, University of Torino, Turin 10149, Italy
2
Agency for Science, Technology and Research, 1 Fusionopolis Way, Connexis, Singapore 487372, Singapore
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 11 October 2017 / Revised: 6 November 2017 / Accepted: 17 November 2017 / Published: 23 November 2017
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Abstract

This paper presents a fragile watermarking algorithm`m for the protection of the integrity of color images with alpha channel. The system is able to identify modified areas with very high probability, even with small color or transparency changes. The main characteristic of the algorithm is the embedding of the watermark by modifying the alpha channel, leaving the color channels untouched and introducing a very small error with respect to the host image. As a consequence, the resulting watermarked images have a very high peak signal-to-noise ratio. The security of the algorithm is based on a secret key defining the embedding space in which the watermark is inserted by means of the Karhunen–Loève transform (KLT) and a genetic algorithm (GA). Its high sensitivity to modifications is shown, proving the security of the whole system. View Full-Text
Keywords: fragile watermarking; color image processing; alpha channel; image authentication; genetic algorithm; Karhunen-Loève transform fragile watermarking; color image processing; alpha channel; image authentication; genetic algorithm; Karhunen-Loève transform
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Bonafè, B.; Botta, M.; Cavagnino, D.; Pomponiu, V. Alpha Channel Fragile Watermarking for Color Image Integrity Protection. J. Imaging 2017, 3, 53.

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