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Microwave Imaging Radiometers by Aperture Synthesis—Performance Simulator (Part 1): Radiative Transfer Module
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J. Imaging 2016, 2(2), 18; doi:10.3390/jimaging2020018

Microwave Imaging Radiometers by Aperture Synthesis Performance Simulator (Part 2): Instrument Modeling, Calibration, and Image Reconstruction Algorithms

1
Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya UPC-BarcelonaTech (UPC) & Institut d’Estudis Espacials de Catalunya/Centre de Tecnologies de l’Espai-UPC, Campus Nord, Building D4, Office 016, E-08034 Barcelona, Spain
2
DEIMOS Engenharia SA, Av. Dom João II 2, 1998-023 Lisboa, Portugal
3
European Space Agency-European Space and Technology Center ESA-ESTEC, Keplerlaan 1, 2201 AZ Noordwijk, The Netherlands
4
Research and Development in Aerospace-RDA GmbH, Rigiplatz 5, 8006 Zürich, Switzerland
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Gonzalo Pajares Martinsanz
Received: 30 December 2015 / Revised: 20 April 2016 / Accepted: 21 April 2016 / Published: 12 May 2016

Abstract

The Synthetic Aperture Interferometric Radiometer Performance Simulator (SAIRPS) has been a three-year project sponsored by the European Space Agency (ESA) to develop a completely generic end-to-end performance simulator of arbitrary synthetic aperture interferometric radiometers. In a companion manuscript (Part I), the Radiative Transfer Module used to generate synthetic fully polarimetric brightness temperatures from 1 to 100 GHz, including land and ocean covers, as well as the atmosphere, is described in detail. In this manuscript (Part II), the instrument model, the calibration procedure, and the imaging algorithms are described. The instrument model includes the simulation of the array topology in terms of the number of antenna elements, the time-dependent position and orientation, and the arbitrary receivers’ topology which can be modified from a very generic one by connecting and disconnecting subsystems. All the parameters can be, one by one, defined either by mathematical functions or by input data files, including the frequency and temperature dependence. Generic calibration algorithms including an external point source, the flat target transformation, and the two-level correlated noise injection are described. Finally, different image reconstruction algorithms suitable for arbitrary array topologies have also been implemented and tested. Simulation results have been validated and selected results are presented. View Full-Text
Keywords: synthetic aperture; interferometry; radiometer; microwave radiometry; simulator; array; receiver; calibration; imaging synthetic aperture; interferometry; radiometer; microwave radiometry; simulator; array; receiver; calibration; imaging
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Camps, A.; Park, H.; Kang, Y.; Bandeiras, J.; Barbosa, J.; Vieira, P.; Friaças, A.; d’Addio, S. Microwave Imaging Radiometers by Aperture Synthesis Performance Simulator (Part 2): Instrument Modeling, Calibration, and Image Reconstruction Algorithms. J. Imaging 2016, 2, 18.

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