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Batteries 2018, 4(3), 36; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries4030036

Binding Energy Referencing for XPS in Alkali Metal-Based Battery Materials Research (II): Application to Complex Composite Electrodes

1
Leibniz Institute for Solid State and Materials Research (IFW) Dresden, Institute for Complex Materials, Helmholtzstr. 20, D-01069 Dresden, Germany
2
Fraunhofer Institute for Ceramic Technologies and Systems (IKTS), Winterbergstr. 28, D-01277 Dresden, Germany
3
Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute for Applied Materials (IAM), Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, D-76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen, Germany
4
Fraunhofer Institute for Material and Beam Technology (IWS), Winterbergstr. 28, D-01277 Dresden, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 14 March 2018 / Revised: 31 May 2018 / Accepted: 6 July 2018 / Published: 1 August 2018
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Abstract

X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) is a key method for studying (electro-)chemical changes in metal-ion battery electrode materials. In a recent publication, we pointed out a conflict in binding energy (BE) scale referencing at alkali metal samples, which is manifested in systematic deviations of the BEs up to several eV due to a specific interaction between the highly reactive alkali metal in contact with non-conducting surrounding species. The consequences of this phenomenon for XPS data interpretation are discussed in the present manuscript. Investigations of phenomena at surface-electrolyte interphase regions for a wide range of materials for both lithium and sodium-based applications are explained, ranging from oxide-based cathode materials via alloys and carbon-based anodes including appropriate reference chemicals. Depending on material class and alkaline content, specific solutions are proposed for choosing the correct reference BE to accurately define the BE scale. In conclusion, the different approaches for the use of reference elements, such as aliphatic carbon, implanted noble gas or surface metals, partially lack practicability and can lead to misinterpretation for application in battery materials. Thus, this manuscript provides exemplary alternative solutions. View Full-Text
Keywords: XPS; energy reference; lithium; sodium; battery application XPS; energy reference; lithium; sodium; battery application
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Oswald, S.; Thoss, F.; Zier, M.; Hoffmann, M.; Jaumann, T.; Herklotz, M.; Nikolowski, K.; Scheiba, F.; Kohl, M.; Giebeler, L.; Mikhailova, D.; Ehrenberg, H. Binding Energy Referencing for XPS in Alkali Metal-Based Battery Materials Research (II): Application to Complex Composite Electrodes. Batteries 2018, 4, 36.

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