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Batteries, Volume 3, Issue 4 (December 2017)

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Cover Story It was shown, for the first time, that a thin film Al/nc–Si/Al structure with a porous top contact [...] Read more.
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Research

Open AccessArticle Cell Performance Comparison between C14- and C15-Predomiated AB2 Metal Hydride Alloys
Batteries 2017, 3(4), 29; doi:10.3390/batteries3040029
Received: 14 July 2017 / Revised: 17 August 2017 / Accepted: 22 August 2017 / Published: 25 September 2017
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (7438 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The performance of cylindrical cells made from negative electrode active materials of two selected AB2 metal hydride chemistries with different dominating Laves phases (C14 vs. C15) were compared. Cells made from Alloy C15 showed a higher high-rate performance and peak power with
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The performance of cylindrical cells made from negative electrode active materials of two selected AB2 metal hydride chemistries with different dominating Laves phases (C14 vs. C15) were compared. Cells made from Alloy C15 showed a higher high-rate performance and peak power with a corresponding sacrifice in capacity, low-temperature performance, charge retention, and cycle life when compared with the C14 counterpart (Alloy C14). Annealing of the Alloy C15 eliminated the ZrNi secondary phase and further improved the high-rate and peak power performance. This treatment on Alloy C15 showed the best low-temperature performance, but also contributed to a less-desirable high-temperature voltage stand and an inferior cycle stability. While the main failure mode for Alloy C14 in the sealed cell is the formation of a thick oxide layer that prevents gas recombination during overcharge and consequent venting of the cell, the failure mode for Alloy C15 is dominated by continuous pulverization related to the volumetric changes during hydride formation and hysteresis in the pressure-composition-temperature isotherm. The leached-out Mn from Alloy C15 formed a high density of oxide deposits in the separator, leading to a deterioration in charge retention performance. Large amounts of Zr were found in the positive electrode of the cycled cell containing Alloy C15, but did not appear to harm cell performance. Suggestions for further composition and process optimization for Alloy C15 are also provided. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nickel Metal Hydride Batteries 2017)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Effects of Alkaline Pre-Etching to Metal Hydride Alloys
Batteries 2017, 3(4), 30; doi:10.3390/batteries3040030
Received: 10 September 2017 / Revised: 28 September 2017 / Accepted: 29 September 2017 / Published: 5 October 2017
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Abstract
The responses of one AB5, two AB2, four A2B7, and one C14-related body-centered-cubic (BCC) metal hydrides to an alkaline-etch (45% KOH at 110 °C for 2 h) were studied by internal resistance, X-ray diffraction, scanning
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The responses of one AB5, two AB2, four A2B7, and one C14-related body-centered-cubic (BCC) metal hydrides to an alkaline-etch (45% KOH at 110 °C for 2 h) were studied by internal resistance, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope, inductively coupled plasma, and AC impedance measurements. Results show that while the etched rare earth–based AB5 and A2B7 alloys surfaces are covered with hydroxide/oxide (weight gain), the transition metal–based AB2 and BCC-C14 alloys surfaces are corroded and leach into electrolyte (weight loss). The C14-predominated AB2, La-only A2B7, and Sm-based A2B7 showed the most reduction in the internal resistance with the alkaline-etch process. Etched A2B7 alloys with high La-contents exhibited the lowest internal resistance and are suggested for use in the high-power application of nickel/metal hydride batteries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nickel Metal Hydride Batteries 2017)
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Open AccessArticle Spontaneous Generation of Electromotive Force in Thin Film Al/Nanosilicon/Al Structures
Batteries 2017, 3(4), 31; doi:10.3390/batteries3040031
Received: 8 September 2017 / Revised: 27 September 2017 / Accepted: 7 October 2017 / Published: 10 October 2017
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Abstract
Contemporary pursuits in electronics include the miniaturization as well as flexibilization of devices. Although there are a large number of different thin and flexible electrochemical batteries, only a few can boast the possibility of working in high humidity conditions. This paper reports on
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Contemporary pursuits in electronics include the miniaturization as well as flexibilization of devices. Although there are a large number of different thin and flexible electrochemical batteries, only a few can boast the possibility of working in high humidity conditions. This paper reports on the fabrication of structures consisting of films of silicon nanoparticles encased between two aluminium electrodes. The value of electromotive force (emf) measured depends on the temperature of the sample and on the pressure of water vapor in the storage atmosphere and reaches approximately 1 V. Volt-ampere characteristics were investigated at different conditions to yield a model of emf generation in these structures. It was found that the reaction of water with silicon nanoparticles is the prime reason behind emf generation. Such a source may be introduced into electronic paper, and employed in the next generation of smart cards. The structure may also be manufactured directly on the surface of silicon chips, such as on the back of crystals in microschemes. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Statistical Characterization of the State-of-Health of Lithium-Ion Batteries with Weibull Distribution Function—A Consideration of Random Effect Model in Charge Capacity Decay Estimation
Batteries 2017, 3(4), 32; doi:10.3390/batteries3040032
Received: 4 August 2017 / Revised: 19 September 2017 / Accepted: 9 October 2017 / Published: 16 October 2017
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Abstract
Effective prognosis of lithium-ion batteries involves the inclusion of the influences of uncertainties that can be incorporated through random effect parameters in a nonlinear mixed effect degradation model framework. This study is geared towards the estimation of the reliability of lithium-ion batteries, using
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Effective prognosis of lithium-ion batteries involves the inclusion of the influences of uncertainties that can be incorporated through random effect parameters in a nonlinear mixed effect degradation model framework. This study is geared towards the estimation of the reliability of lithium-ion batteries, using parametric effects determination involving uncertainty, using a multiphase decay patterned sigmoidal model, experimental data and the Weibull distribution function. The random effect model, which uses Maximum Likelihood Estimation (MLE) and Stochastic Approximation Expectation Maximization (SAEM) algorithm to predict the parametric values, was found to estimate the remaining useful life (RUL) to an accuracy of more than 98%. The State-of-Health (SOH) of the batteries was estimated using the Weibull distribution function, which is found to be an appropriate formulation to use. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Battery Management Systems)
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Open AccessArticle Thermal Characteristics of Conversion-Type FeOF Cathode in Li-ion Batteries
Batteries 2017, 3(4), 33; doi:10.3390/batteries3040033
Received: 5 September 2017 / Revised: 10 October 2017 / Accepted: 13 October 2017 / Published: 23 October 2017
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Abstract
Rutile FeOF was used as a conversion-type cathode material for Li-ion batteries. In the present study, 0.6Li, 1.4Li, and 2.7Li per mole lithiation reactions were carried out by changing the electrochemical discharge reaction depth. The thermal characteristics of the FeOF cathode were investigated
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Rutile FeOF was used as a conversion-type cathode material for Li-ion batteries. In the present study, 0.6Li, 1.4Li, and 2.7Li per mole lithiation reactions were carried out by changing the electrochemical discharge reaction depth. The thermal characteristics of the FeOF cathode were investigated by thermogravimetric mass spectrometric (TG-MS) and differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) systems. No remarkable HF release was detected, even up to 700 °C, which indicated a low toxic risk for the FeOF cathode. Changes in the thermal properties of the FeOF cathode via different conversion reaction depths in the associated electrolyte were studied by changing the cathode/electrolyte ratio in the mixture. LiFeOF was found to exothermically react with the electrolyte at about 210 °C. Similar exothermic reactions were found with charged FeOF cathodes because of the irreversible Li ions. Among the products of the conversion reaction of FeOF, Li2O was found to exothermically react with the electrolyte at about 120 °C, which induced the main thermal risk of the FeOF cathode. It suggests that the oxygen-containing conversion-type cathodes have a higher thermal risk than the oxygen-free ones, but controlling the cathode/electrolyte ratio in cells successfully reduced the thermal risk. Finally, the thermal stability of the FeOF cathode was evaluated in comparison with FeF3 and LiFePO4 cathodes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Thermal Properties of Materials, Cells and Batteries)
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Open AccessArticle Comparison among Constituent Phases in Superlattice Metal Hydride Alloys for Battery Applications
Batteries 2017, 3(4), 34; doi:10.3390/batteries3040034
Received: 14 September 2017 / Revised: 9 October 2017 / Accepted: 18 October 2017 / Published: 31 October 2017
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Abstract
The effects of seven constituent phases—CeNi3, NdNi3, Nd2Ni7, Pr2Ni7, Sm5Ni19, Nd5Co19, and CaCu5—on the gaseous phase and electrochemical characteristics of a
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The effects of seven constituent phases—CeNi3, NdNi3, Nd2Ni7, Pr2Ni7, Sm5Ni19, Nd5Co19, and CaCu5—on the gaseous phase and electrochemical characteristics of a superlattice metal hydride alloy made by induction melting with a composition of Sm14La5.7Mg4.0Ni73Al3.3 were studied through a series of annealing experiments. With an increase in annealing temperature, the abundance of non-superlattice CaCu5 phase first decreases and then increases, which is opposite to the phase abundance evolution of Nd2Ni7—the phase with the best electrochemical performance. The optimal annealing condition for the composition in this study is 920 °C for 5 h. Extensive correlation studies reveal that the A2B7 phase demonstrates higher gaseous phase hydrogen storage and electrochemical discharge capacities and better battery performance in high-rate dischargeability, charge retention, and cycle life. Moreover, the hexagonal stacking structure is found to be more favorable than the rhombohedral structure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nickel Metal Hydride Batteries 2017)
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Open AccessArticle Performance Comparison between AB5 and Superlattice Metal Hydride Alloys in Sealed Cells
Batteries 2017, 3(4), 35; doi:10.3390/batteries3040035
Received: 27 September 2017 / Revised: 11 October 2017 / Accepted: 17 October 2017 / Published: 6 November 2017
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Abstract
High-power cylindrical nickel metal/hydride batteries using a misch metal-based Al-free superlattice alloy with a composition of La11.3Pr1.7Nd5.1Mg4.5Ni63.6Co13.6Zr0.2 were fabricated and evaluated against those using a standard AB5 metal hydride
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High-power cylindrical nickel metal/hydride batteries using a misch metal-based Al-free superlattice alloy with a composition of La11.3Pr1.7Nd5.1Mg4.5Ni63.6Co13.6Zr0.2 were fabricated and evaluated against those using a standard AB5 metal hydride alloy. At room temperature, cells made with the superlattice alloy showed a 40% lower internal resistance and a 59% lower surface charge-transfer resistance compared to cells made with the AB5 alloy. At a low temperature (−10 °C), cells made with the superlattice alloy demonstrated an 18% lower internal resistance and a 60% lower surface charge-transfer resistance compared to cells made with the AB5 alloy. Cells made with the superlattice alloy exhibited a better charge retention at −10 °C. A cycle life comparison in a regular cell configuration indicated that the Al-free superlattice alloy contributes to a shorter cycle life as a result of the pulverization from the lattice expansion of the main phase. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nickel Metal Hydride Batteries 2017)
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Open AccessArticle Effects of Boron-Incorporation in a V-Containing Zr-Based AB2 Metal Hydride Alloy
Batteries 2017, 3(4), 36; doi:10.3390/batteries3040036
Received: 23 September 2017 / Revised: 23 October 2017 / Accepted: 25 October 2017 / Published: 14 November 2017
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Abstract
In this study, boron, a metalloid element commonly used in semiconductor applications, was added in a V-containing Zr-based AB2 metal hydride alloy. In general, as the boron content in the alloy increased, the high-rate dischargeability, surface exchange current, and double-layer capacitance first
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In this study, boron, a metalloid element commonly used in semiconductor applications, was added in a V-containing Zr-based AB2 metal hydride alloy. In general, as the boron content in the alloy increased, the high-rate dischargeability, surface exchange current, and double-layer capacitance first decreased and then increased whereas charge-transfer resistance and dot product of charge-transfer resistance and double-layer capacitance changed in the opposite direction. Electrochemical and gaseous phase characteristics of two boron-containing alloys, with the same boron content detected by the inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer, showed significant variations in performances due to the difference in phase abundance of a newly formed tetragonal V3B2 phase. This new phase contributes to the increases in electrochemical high-rate dischargeability, surface exchange current, charge-transfer resistances at room, and low temperatures. However, the V3B2 phase does not contribute to the hydrogen storage capacities in either gaseous phase and electrochemical environment. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Nanostructured Networks for Energy Storage: Vertically Aligned Carbon Nanotubes (VACNT) as Current Collectors for High-Power Li4Ti5O12(LTO)//LiMn2O4(LMO) Lithium-Ion Batteries
Batteries 2017, 3(4), 37; doi:10.3390/batteries3040037
Received: 24 October 2017 / Revised: 7 November 2017 / Accepted: 9 November 2017 / Published: 15 November 2017
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Abstract
As a concept for electrode architecture in high power lithium ion batteries, self-supported nanoarrays enable ultra-high power densities as a result of their open pore geometry, which results in short and direct Li+-ion and electron pathways. Vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (VACNT)
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As a concept for electrode architecture in high power lithium ion batteries, self-supported nanoarrays enable ultra-high power densities as a result of their open pore geometry, which results in short and direct Li+-ion and electron pathways. Vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (VACNT) on metallic current collectors with low interface resistance are used as current collectors for the chemical solution infiltration of electroactive oxides to produce vertically aligned carbon nanotubes decorated with in situ grown LiMn2O4 (LMO) and Li4Ti5O12 (LTO) nanoparticles. The production processes steps (catalyst coating, VACNT chemical vapor deposition (CVD), infiltration, and thermal transformation) are all scalable, continuous, and suitable for niche market production to achieve high oxide loadings up to 70 wt %. Due to their unique transport structure, as-prepared nanoarrays achieve remarkably high power densities up to 2.58 kW kg−1, which is based on the total electrode mass at 80 C for LiMn2O4//Li4Ti5O12 full cells. The tailoring of LTO and LMO nanoparticle size (~20–100 nm) and VACNT length (array height: 60–200 µm) gives insights into the rate-limiting steps at high current for these kinds of nanoarray electrodes at very high C-rates of up to 200 C. The results reveal the critical structural parameters for achieving high power densities in VACNT nanoarray full cells. Full article
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Open AccessArticle A Ni/MH Pouch Cell with High-Capacity Ni(OH)2
Batteries 2017, 3(4), 38; doi:10.3390/batteries3040038
Received: 26 September 2017 / Revised: 16 November 2017 / Accepted: 21 November 2017 / Published: 4 December 2017
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Abstract
Electrochemical performances of a high-capacity and long life β-α core-shell structured Ni0.84Co0.12Al0.04(OH)2 as the positive electrode active material were tested in a pouch design and compared to those of a standard β-Ni0.91
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Electrochemical performances of a high-capacity and long life β-α core-shell structured Ni0.84Co0.12Al0.04(OH)2 as the positive electrode active material were tested in a pouch design and compared to those of a standard β-Ni0.91Co0.045Zn0.045(OH)2. The core-shell materials were fabricated with a continuous co-precipitation process, which created an Al-poor core and an Al-rich shell during the nucleation and particle growth stages, respectively. The Al-rich shell became α-Ni(OH)2 after electrical activation and remained intact through the cycling. Pouch cells with the high-capacity β-α core-shell positive electrode material show higher charge acceptances and discharge capacities at 0.1C, 0.2C, 0.5C, and 1C, improved self-discharge performances, and reduced internal and surface charge-transfer resistances, at both room temperature and −10 °C when compared to those with the standard positive electrode material. While the high capacity of the core-shell material can be attributed to the α phase with a multi-electron transfer capability, the improvement in high-rate capability (lower resistance) is caused by the unique surface morphology and abundant interface sites at the β-α grain boundaries. Gravimetric energy densities of pouch cells made with the high-capacity and standard positive materials are 127 and 110 Wh·kg−1, respectively. A further improvement in capacity is expected via the continued optimization of pouch design and the use of high-capacity metal hydride alloy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nickel Metal Hydride Batteries 2017)
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Open AccessArticle A Bilevel Equalizer for Large Lithium Ion Batteries
Batteries 2017, 3(4), 39; doi:10.3390/batteries3040039
Received: 5 September 2017 / Revised: 3 November 2017 / Accepted: 21 November 2017 / Published: 7 December 2017
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Abstract
Due to variations among the cells, large lithium ion batteries (LIB) such as those in battery energy storage stations (BESS) and electric vehicles (EVs) must have an equalizer (EQU) circuit to balance the cell voltages. In spite of their significant losses and other
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Due to variations among the cells, large lithium ion batteries (LIB) such as those in battery energy storage stations (BESS) and electric vehicles (EVs) must have an equalizer (EQU) circuit to balance the cell voltages. In spite of their significant losses and other limitations, passive equalizers (PEQ) are used in most applications because they are relatively simple and low cost. Active equalizers (AEQ) reduce these PEQ problems, but are not as widely used due to their much higher cost and complexity. A new hybrid circuit called the Bilevel EQU (BEQ) combines the PEQ and AEQ to provide much higher performance than a pure PEQ but at a much lower cost than a pure AEQ. Full article
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