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Batteries 2016, 2(3), 24; doi:10.3390/batteries2030024

Gaseous Phase and Electrochemical Hydrogen Storage Properties of Ti50Zr1Ni44X5 (X = Ni, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, or Cu) for Nickel Metal Hydride Battery Applications

1
BASF/Battery Materials-Ovonic, 2983 Waterview Drive, Rochester Hills, MI 48309, USA
2
Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI 48202, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Hua Kun Liu
Received: 11 May 2016 / Revised: 24 June 2016 / Accepted: 28 June 2016 / Published: 8 July 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nickel Metal Hydride Batteries)
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Abstract

Structural, gaseous phase hydrogen storage, and electrochemical properties of a series of the Ti50Zr1Ni44X5 (X = Ni, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, or Cu) metal hydride alloys were studied. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed the multi-phase nature of all alloys, which were composed of a stoichiometric TiNi matrix, a hyperstoichiometric TiNi minor phase, and a Ti2Ni secondary phase. Improvement in synergetic effects between the main TiNi and secondary Ti2Ni phases, determined by the amount of distorted lattice region in TiNi near Ti2Ni, was accomplished by the substitution of an element with a higher work function, which consequently causes a dramatic increase in gaseous phase hydrogen storage capacity compared to the Ti50Zr1Ni49 base alloy. Capacity performance is further enhanced in the electrochemical environment, especially in the cases of the Ti50Zr1Ni49 base alloy and Ti50Zr1Ni44Co5 alloy. Although the TiNi-based alloys in the current study show poorer high-rate performances compared to the commonly used AB5, AB2, and A2B7 alloys, they have adequate capacity performances and also excel in terms of cost and cycle stability. Among the alloys investigated, the Ti50Zr1Ni44Fe5 alloy demonstrated the best balance among capacity (394 mAh·g−1), high-rate performance, activation, and cycle stability and is recommended for follow-up full-cell testing and as the base composition for future formula optimization. A review of previous research works regarding the TiNi metal hydride alloys is also included. View Full-Text
Keywords: hydrogen absorbing materials; metal hydride electrode; nickel/metal hydride (Ni/MH) battery; transition metal alloy; synergetic effects; electrochemistry; pressure-concentration-temperature (PCT) isotherm hydrogen absorbing materials; metal hydride electrode; nickel/metal hydride (Ni/MH) battery; transition metal alloy; synergetic effects; electrochemistry; pressure-concentration-temperature (PCT) isotherm
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Nei, J.; Young, K.-H. Gaseous Phase and Electrochemical Hydrogen Storage Properties of Ti50Zr1Ni44X5 (X = Ni, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, or Cu) for Nickel Metal Hydride Battery Applications. Batteries 2016, 2, 24.

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