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Fermentation 2018, 4(2), 31; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation4020031

Yeasts from Different Habitats and Their Potential as Biocontrol Agents

Johannes Gutenberg-University Mainz, Institute for Molecular Physiology, Microbiology and Wine Research, Becherweg 15, 55120 Mainz, Germany
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Received: 14 March 2018 / Revised: 16 April 2018 / Accepted: 19 April 2018 / Published: 24 April 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microbial Control)
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Abstract

Ever since plant diseases began causing losses in viticulture, the control of phytopathogenic fungi has become of vital interest for winemakers. The occurrence of novel pests, fungicide resistance, and changed consumer expectations have led to an enormous demand for novel plant protection strategies. As part of integrated protection measures, antagonistic microorganisms have been investigated to a large extent. Such microorganisms can be applied not only in conventional, but also in organic farming as biological control agents (BCA). Particularly, yeasts were found to be interesting candidates for the development of BCA. Many of these eukaryotic microorganisms are found as part of the phylloplane microflora. In this study, we assessed a set of 38 yeast isolates from different habitats, including the guts of termites, for inhibitory effects against some phytopathogenic fungi that have received less attention in earlier studies. The majority of yeasts were found to interfere with fungi infecting grapevine (Eutypa lata, Botrytis cinerea, and Roesleria subterranea), stone fruits (Monilinia fructicola), or rice (Magnaporte oryzae), as well in vitro and in model experiment on fruits. Although most yeast strains secreted glycoside hydrolases and proteases, attempts to demonstrate direct antagonistic activities of lytic enzymes failed. However, in culture filtrates of the termite yeast Papiliotrema odontotermitis OO5, a low molecular thermostable antagonistic factor was detected. Iron depletion as a BCA mechanism was confirmed for strains of Metschnikowia pulcherrima but not for other yeasts. View Full-Text
Keywords: biological control agents; yeasts; phytopathogenic fungi; competition; lytic enzymes; pulcherrimin; termite biological control agents; yeasts; phytopathogenic fungi; competition; lytic enzymes; pulcherrimin; termite
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Pretscher, J.; Fischkal, T.; Branscheidt, S.; Jäger, L.; Kahl, S.; Schlander, M.; Thines, E.; Claus, H. Yeasts from Different Habitats and Their Potential as Biocontrol Agents. Fermentation 2018, 4, 31.

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