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C 2017, 3(1), 5; doi:10.3390/c3010005

Electrode Surface Composition of Dual-Intercalation, All-Graphite Batteries

1
Department of Materials Science and Engineering and the A.J. Drexel Nanomaterials Institute, Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
2
Sensors and Electron Devices Directorate, U.S. Army Research Laboratory, Adelphi, MD 20783, USA
3
Thin Film Physics Division, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology (IFM), Linköping University, SE-583 31 Linköping, Sweden
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 19 December 2016 / Accepted: 31 January 2017 / Published: 9 February 2017
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Abstract

Dual-intercalation batteries implement graphite electrodes as both cathodes and anodes and offer high specific energy, inexpensive and environmentally sustainable materials, and high operating voltages. Our research investigated the influence of surface composition on capacities and cycling efficiencies of chemically functionalized all-graphite battery electrodes. We subjected coreshell spherical particles and synthetic graphite flakes to high-temperature air oxidation, and hydrogenation to introduce, respectively, –OH, and –H surface functional groups. We identified noticeable influences of electrode surface chemistry on first-cycle efficiencies and charge storage densities of anion and cation intercalation into graphite electrodes. We matched oxidized cathodes and hydrogenated anodes in dual-ion batteries and improved their overall performance. Our approach provides novel fundamental insight into the anion intercalation process and suggests inexpensive and environmentally sustainable methods to improve performance of these grid-scale energy storage systems View Full-Text
Keywords: dual-intercalation battery; graphite battery; grid storage; surface chemistry; carbon dual-intercalation battery; graphite battery; grid storage; surface chemistry; carbon
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Dyatkin, B.; Halim, J.; Read, J.A. Electrode Surface Composition of Dual-Intercalation, All-Graphite Batteries. C 2017, 3, 5.

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