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C 2016, 2(4), 23; doi:10.3390/c2040023

Three-Dimensional Carbon Nanostructures for Advanced Lithium-Ion Batteries

1
Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of North Texas, North Texas Discovery Park 3940 North Elm St. Suite E-132, Denton, TX 76207, USA
2
Vehicle Technologies Office, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, U.S. Department of Energy, 1000 Independence Ave., SW, Washington, DC 20585, USA
3
Department of Mechanical and Energy Engineering, University of North Texas, North Texas Discovery Park 3940 North Elm St. Suite E-132, Denton, TX 76207, USA
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: I. Francis Cheng
Received: 29 July 2016 / Revised: 1 October 2016 / Accepted: 13 October 2016 / Published: 26 October 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Batteries: Recent Advances in Carbon Materials)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [4986 KB, uploaded 26 October 2016]   |  

Abstract

Carbon nanostructural materials have gained the spotlight as promising anode materials for energy storage; they exhibit unique physico-chemical properties such as large surface area, short Li+ ion diffusion length, and high electrical conductivity, in addition to their long-term stability. However, carbon-nanostructured materials have issues with low areal and volumetric densities for the practical applications in electric vehicles, portable electronics, and power grid systems, which demand higher energy and power densities. One approach to overcoming these issues is to design and apply a three-dimensional (3D) electrode accommodating a larger loading amount of active anode materials while facilitating Li+ ion diffusion. Furthermore, 3D nanocarbon frameworks can impart a conducting pathway and structural buffer to high-capacity non-carbon nanomaterials, which results in enhanced Li+ ion storage capacity. In this paper, we review our recent progress on the design and fabrication of 3D carbon nanostructures, their performance in Li-ion batteries (LIBs), and their implementation into large-scale, lightweight, and flexible LIBs. View Full-Text
Keywords: three-dimensional carbon nanostructures; Li-ion batteries; carbon nanotubes; graphene; nanoporous carbon; areal and volumetric density; silicon; hybrid anode; flexible Li-ion battery; areal and volumetric capacity three-dimensional carbon nanostructures; Li-ion batteries; carbon nanotubes; graphene; nanoporous carbon; areal and volumetric density; silicon; hybrid anode; flexible Li-ion battery; areal and volumetric capacity
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Kang, C.; Cha, E.; Patel, M.D.; Wu, H.F.; Choi, W. Three-Dimensional Carbon Nanostructures for Advanced Lithium-Ion Batteries. C 2016, 2, 23.

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