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C 2016, 2(2), 14; doi:10.3390/c2020014

The Mediatorless Electroanalytical Sensing of Sulfide Utilizing Unmodified Graphitic Electrode Materials

1
Chemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085, India
2
Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Science and the Environment, Division of Chemistry and Environmental Science, Manchester Metropolitan University, Chester Street, Manchester M1 5GD, UK
3
Departamento de Química Analítica e IACYS, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Extremadura, Avda. De Elvas s/n, Badajoz 06006, Spain
4
Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Science & the Environment, Division of Biology and Conservation Ecology, Manchester Metropolitan University, Chester Street, Manchester M1 5GD, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: I. Francis Cheng and Trevor Davies
Received: 5 February 2016 / Revised: 29 March 2016 / Accepted: 11 April 2016 / Published: 16 April 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Batteries: Recent Advances in Carbon Materials)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1696 KB, uploaded 16 April 2016]   |  

Abstract

The mediatorless electroanalytical sensing of sulfide is explored at a range of commercially available graphitic based electrodes namely, edge and basal plane pyrolytic graphite (EPPGE and BPPGE, respectively), boron-doped diamond (BDDE), glassy carbon (GCE) and screen-printed electrodes (SPE). The electrochemical performance is evaluated in terms of current density/analytical signal and oxidation potential, where the GCE and SPE are found to possess the optimal electrochemical responses. The electroanalytical performance of the GCE is explored towards the electrochemical sensing of sulfide and it is found that it is hampered by sulfide passivation, thus requiring pretreatment in the form of electrode polishing between each measurement. We demonstrate that SPEs provide a simple analytically comparable alternative, which, due to their scales of economy, create disposable, one-shot sensors that do not require any pretreatment of the electrode surface. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report using mediatorless SPEs (bare/unmodified) towards the sensing of sulfide. In addition, the electroanalytical efficacy of the SPEs is also explored towards the detection of sulfide within model aqueous solutions and real drinking water samples presenting good apparent recoveries, justifying the plausibility of this graphitic mediatorless screen-printed platform. View Full-Text
Keywords: sulfide; graphitic electrodes; screen-printed electrodes sulfide; graphitic electrodes; screen-printed electrodes
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Thakur, B.; Bernalte, E.; Smith, J.P.; Linton, P.E.; Sawant, S.N.; Banks, C.E.; Foster, C.W. The Mediatorless Electroanalytical Sensing of Sulfide Utilizing Unmodified Graphitic Electrode Materials. C 2016, 2, 14.

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