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J. Fungi 2018, 4(3), 95; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof4030095

Ecological Determinants of Sporotrichosis Etiological Agents

1
School of Public Health and Administration, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, Lima 15102, Peru
2
Fondo Nacional de Desarrollo Científico y Tecnológico y de Innovación Tecnológica (FONDECYT), Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnologia e Innovacion Tecnologica, Lima 18, Peru
3
Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional de San Antonio Abad del Cusco (UNSAAC), Cusco 08003, Peru
4
Instituto Universitario de Enfermedades Tropicales y Biomedicina del Cusco–UNSAAC, Cusco 08003, Peru
5
Dermatology Service & Mycology Department, Hospital General de México, “Dr. Eduardo Liceaga”, Balmis 148, Colonia Doctores, Ciudad de México 06726, Mexico
6
Internal Medicine Department, Hospital General de Zona 29, Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, Ciudad de México 07950, Mexico
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 29 June 2018 / Revised: 4 August 2018 / Accepted: 10 August 2018 / Published: 12 August 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sporothrix and Sporotrichosis)
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Abstract

Ecological determinants of sporotrichosis etiological agents remain poorly understood. For this reason, we performed explorations using local climate estimates to determine the temperature and humidity ranges of the environment where clinically relevant Sporothrix species occur and to identify what plant species are associated with them, using data collected from the published literature. We performed a literature search to identify all publications on environmental isolations of medically relevant species of Sporothrix in the PubMed, SCOPUS, and EMBASE databases. All those studies were included in the analysis where medically relevant species of Sporothrix have been isolated from soil samples, and described a specific geographical location that could be precisely georeferenced. We approximated temperature and humidity from local climate estimates, integrating geospatial data, temperature, and water vapor pressure from regions or provinces where medically relevant species of Sporothrix have been isolated from soil. Sporothrix spp. were more commonly isolated from soil of different regions or provinces of 16 countries. Most environmental isolates were identified as S. schenckii, whereas S. pallida, S. brasiliensis, S. globosa, and S. mexicana were rare. We estimate that medically relevant Sporothrix spp. grow in the soil at temperatures of 6.6 °C to 28.84 °C and 37.5% to 99.06% relative humidity. These findings indicate that sporotrichosis etiological agents grow in soil in ecological niches from soil with wide ranges of temperature and humidity, but they are also associated with a variety of plants, flowers, woody debris, reed leaves, corn stalks, leaves, and wood crumbs, potentially facilitating its establishment and proliferation in the environment. View Full-Text
Keywords: ecological determinants; Sporothrix spp.; temperature; humidity ecological determinants; Sporothrix spp.; temperature; humidity
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Ramírez-Soto, M.C.; Aguilar-Ancori, E.G.; Tirado-Sánchez, A.; Bonifaz, A. Ecological Determinants of Sporotrichosis Etiological Agents. J. Fungi 2018, 4, 95.

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