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J. Fungi 2018, 4(1), 20; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof4010020

The Plant Defensin NaD1 Enters the Cytoplasm of Candida albicans via Endocytosis

La Trobe Institute for Molecular Science, La Trobe University, 3086 Melbourne, Australia
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Received: 30 December 2017 / Revised: 1 February 2018 / Accepted: 3 February 2018 / Published: 6 February 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antifungal Peptides)
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Abstract

Antimicrobial peptides are widespread in nature and are produced by many organisms as a first line of defence against pathogens. These peptides have a broad range of biological activities, such as antibacterial or antifungal activities and act with varied mechanisms of action. A large number of the peptides are amphipathic α-helices which act by disrupting plasma membranes and allowing leakage of intracellular contents. However, some peptides have more complex mechanisms of action that require internalisation into the target organisms’ cytoplasm. The method by which these peptides enter the cytoplasm varies, with some requiring the energy dependent processes of endocytosis or polyamine transport and others entering via passive transport. Here we describe the mechanism that the antimicrobial peptide, the plant defensin NaD1, uses to transverse the fungal membrane and gain access to the fungal cytoplasm. By inhibiting ATP synthesis and using an inhibitor of actin polymerisation, we show that NaD1 is internalised into C. albicans yeast cells by the energy-dependent process of endocytosis. View Full-Text
Keywords: fungi; antifungal peptides; plant defensin; endocytosis; Candida albicans fungi; antifungal peptides; plant defensin; endocytosis; Candida albicans
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Hayes, B.M.E.; Bleackley, M.R.; Anderson, M.A.; van der Weerden, N.L. The Plant Defensin NaD1 Enters the Cytoplasm of Candida albicans via Endocytosis. J. Fungi 2018, 4, 20.

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