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J. Fungi 2018, 4(1), 16; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof4010016

Biofilm Formation and Resistance to Fungicides in Clinically Relevant Members of the Fungal Genus Fusarium

1
Department of Mycology, Kayseri Education and Research Hospital, Kayseri 38010, Turkey
2
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Center of Excellence for Infection Biology and Antimicrobial Pharmacology, Tehran 1969753491, Iran
3
Division of Mycology, Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Osmangazi, Eskişehir 26040, Turkey
4
Division of Mycology, Department of Medical Microbiology, University of Health Sciences Bursa High Specialization Training and Research Hospital, Bursa 16320, Turkey
5
Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Uludağ University, Bursa 16059, Turkey
6
Department of Medical Parasitology and Mycology, School of Medicine, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin 34156-13911, Iran
7
Division of Mycology, Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Çukurova, Adana 01330, Turkey
8
Westerdijk Fungal Biodiversity Institute, 3584 CT Utrecht, The Netherlands
9
Department of Medical Microbiology, Center of Expertise in Mycology Radboudumc/CWZ, 6500 HB Nijmegen, The Netherlands
10
Invasive Fungi Research Center, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari 48175-1665, Iran
Current address: BU Biointeracton and Plant Health, Wageningen University and Research, Droevendaalsesteeg 1, 6700AA Wageningen, The Netherlands.
Current address: Molecular Microbiology Section, Laboratory of Clinical Infectious Diseases (LCID), National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), National Institutes of Health (NIH), Bethesda, MD 20892, USA.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 11 November 2017 / Revised: 10 January 2018 / Accepted: 16 January 2018 / Published: 23 January 2018
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Abstract

Clinically relevant members of the fungal genus, Fusarium, exhibit an extraordinary genetic diversity and cause a wide spectrum of infections in both healthy individuals and immunocompromised patients. Generally, Fusarium species are intrinsically resistant to all systemic antifungals. We investigated whether the presence or absence of the ability to produce biofilms across and within Fusarium species complexes is linked to higher resistance against antifungals. A collection of 41 Fusarium strains, obtained from 38 patients with superficial and systemic infections, and three infected crops, were tested, including 25 species within the Fusarium fujikuroi species complex, 14 from the Fusarium solani species complex (FSSC), one Fusarium dimerum species complex, and one Fusarium oxysporum species complex isolate. Of all isolates tested, only seven strains from two species of FSSC, five F. petroliphilum and two F. keratoplasticum strains, recovered from blood, nail scrapings, and nasal biopsy samples, could produce biofilms under the tested conditions. In the liquid culture tested, sessile biofilm-forming Fusarium strains exhibited elevated minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) for amphotericin B, voriconazole, and posaconazole, compared to their planktonic counterparts, indicating that the ability to form biofilm may significantly increase resistance. Collectively, this suggests that once a surface adherent biofilm has been established, therapies designed to kill planktonic cells of Fusarium are ineffective. View Full-Text
Keywords: biofilms; Fusarium solani species complex; Fusarium petroliphilum; Fusarium keratoplasticum; antifungal resistance biofilms; Fusarium solani species complex; Fusarium petroliphilum; Fusarium keratoplasticum; antifungal resistance
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Sav, H.; Rafati, H.; Öz, Y.; Dalyan-Cilo, B.; Ener, B.; Mohammadi, F.; Ilkit, M.; van Diepeningen, A.D.; Seyedmousavi, S. Biofilm Formation and Resistance to Fungicides in Clinically Relevant Members of the Fungal Genus Fusarium. J. Fungi 2018, 4, 16.

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