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J. Fungi 2017, 3(4), 69; doi:10.3390/jof3040069

Fluconazole Resistance among Oral Candida Isolates from People Living with HIV/AIDS in a Nigerian Tertiary Hospital

1
Department of Medical Microbiology, School of Medicine, University of Benin, Benin City PMB 1154, Nigeria
2
Department of Medical Microbiology, University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City PMB 1111, Nigeria
3
Division of Infection, Immunity and Respiratory Medicine, Faculty of Biology, Medicine and Health, The University of Manchester, Manchester M139PL, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 12 November 2017 / Revised: 29 November 2017 / Accepted: 7 December 2017 / Published: 8 December 2017
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Abstract

Oropharyngeal candidiasis, a common fungal infection in people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA), arises from Candida species colonizing the oral cavity. Fluconazole is the preferred treatment and is often used empirically. Few studies have investigated the prevalence of fluconazole resistance in Nigeria. This study aimed at determining the burden of fluconazole resistance among Candida species in the oral cavities of PLWHA. We sampled the oral cavities of 350 HIV-infected adults and an equal number of HIV-negative controls. Candida isolates were identified using germ tube tests, CHROMagar Candida (CHROMagar, Paris, France), and API Candida yeast identification system (BioMérieux, Marcy-l’Étoile, France). Fluconazole susceptibility was determined using the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute disc diffusion method. Data were analysed using SPSS version 21 (IBM, New York, NY, USA). The significance level was set at p ≤ 0.05. The isolation rates for Candida amongst HIV-infected subjects and controls were 20.6% and 3.4%, respectively (p < 0.001). In PLWHA, Candida albicans was most frequently isolated (81.3%) and fluconazole resistance was present in 18 (24%) of the 75 Candida isolates. Resistance to fluconazole was present in half of the non-albicans Candida isolates. Fluconazole resistance is prevalent among oral Candida isolates in PLWHA in the study area with a significantly higher rate among non-albicans Candida spp. View Full-Text
Keywords: HIV; Candida species; fluconazole resistance; oropharyngeal candidiasis; Nigeria HIV; Candida species; fluconazole resistance; oropharyngeal candidiasis; Nigeria
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MDPI and ACS Style

Osaigbovo, I.I.; Lofor, P.V.; Oladele, R.O. Fluconazole Resistance among Oral Candida Isolates from People Living with HIV/AIDS in a Nigerian Tertiary Hospital. J. Fungi 2017, 3, 69.

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