Next Article in Journal
HIV-Associated Cryptococcal Disease in Resource-Limited Settings: A Case for “Prevention Is Better Than Cure”?
Next Article in Special Issue
Patient Susceptibility to Candidiasis—A Potential for Adjunctive Immunotherapy
Previous Article in Journal
Botanicals and Phosphonate Show Potential to Replace Copper for Control of Potato Late Blight
Previous Article in Special Issue
Global and Multi-National Prevalence of Fungal Diseases—Estimate Precision
Article Menu
Issue 4 (December) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessReview
J. Fungi 2017, 3(4), 66; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof3040066

Morphology Changes in Human Fungal Pathogens upon Interaction with the Host

Department of Microbiology and Immunity, Medical School, University of Minnesota, 689 23rd Ave SE, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA
Current address: Pediatric Infectious Diseases, School of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 12 September 2017 / Revised: 20 November 2017 / Accepted: 30 November 2017 / Published: 1 December 2017
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [2094 KB, uploaded 23 January 2018]   |  

Abstract

Morphological changes are a very common and effective strategy for pathogens to survive in the mammalian host. During interactions with their host, human pathogenic fungi undergo an array of morphological changes that are tightly associated with virulence. Candida albicans switches between yeast cells and hyphae during infection. Thermally dimorphic pathogens, such as Histoplasma capsulatum and Blastomyces species transform from hyphal growth to yeast cells in response to host stimuli. Coccidioides and Pneumocystis species produce spherules and cysts, respectively, which allow for the production of offspring in a protected environment. Finally, Cryptococcus species suppress hyphal growth and instead produce an array of yeast cells—from large polyploid titan cells to micro cells. While the morphology changes produced by human fungal pathogens are diverse, they all allow for the pathogens to evade, manipulate, and overcome host immune defenses to cause disease. In this review, we summarize the morphology changes in human fungal pathogens—focusing on morphological features, stimuli, and mechanisms of formation in the host. View Full-Text
Keywords: human fungal pathogen; morphology change; host-pathogen interaction; titan cell; spherules; hyphae human fungal pathogen; morphology change; host-pathogen interaction; titan cell; spherules; hyphae
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Li, Z.; Nielsen, K. Morphology Changes in Human Fungal Pathogens upon Interaction with the Host. J. Fungi 2017, 3, 66.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
J. Fungi EISSN 2309-608X Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top