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J. Fungi 2017, 3(4), 59; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof3040059

The PHR Family: The Role of Extracellular Transglycosylases in Shaping Candida albicans Cells

1
Department of Biosciences, University of Milan, Via Celoria 26, Milan 20133, Italy
2
Department of Microbiology & Immunology, Georgetown University, Washington, DC 20057, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 2 October 2017 / Revised: 19 October 2017 / Accepted: 24 October 2017 / Published: 29 October 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fungal Cell Wall)
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Abstract

Candida albicans is an opportunistic microorganism that can become a pathogen causing mild superficial mycosis or more severe invasive infections that can be life-threatening for debilitated patients. In the etiology of invasive infections, key factors are the adaptability of C. albicans to the different niches of the human body and the transition from a yeast form to hypha. Hyphal morphology confers high adhesiveness to the host cells, as well as the ability to penetrate into organs. The cell wall plays a crucial role in the morphological changes C. albicans undergoes in response to specific environmental cues. Among the different categories of enzymes involved in the formation of the fungal cell wall, the GH72 family of transglycosylases plays an important assembly role. These enzymes cut and religate β-(1,3)-glucan, the major determinant of cell shape. In C. albicans, the PHR family encodes GH72 enzymes, some of which work in specific environmental conditions. In this review, we will summarize the work from the initial discovery of PHR genes to the study of the pH-dependent expression of PHR1 and PHR2, from the characterization of the gene products to the recent findings concerning the stress response generated by the lack of GH72 activity in C. albicans hyphae. View Full-Text
Keywords: cell wall assembly; β-(1,3)-glucanosyltransferases; morphogenesis; cell wall stress cell wall assembly; β-(1,3)-glucanosyltransferases; morphogenesis; cell wall stress
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Popolo, L.; Degani, G.; Camilloni, C.; Fonzi, W.A. The PHR Family: The Role of Extracellular Transglycosylases in Shaping Candida albicans Cells. J. Fungi 2017, 3, 59.

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