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J. Fungi 2017, 3(2), 29; doi:10.3390/jof3020029

Isolation of Ovicidal Fungi from Fecal Samples of Captive Animals Maintained in a Zoological Park

1
COPAR (Control of Parasites), Animal Pathology Department, Veterinary Faculty, Santiago de Compostela University, Campus Universitario, 27002 Lugo, Spain
2
Department of Botany, Veterinary Faculty, Santiago de Compostela University, Campus Universitario, 27002 Lugo, Spain
3
Marcelle Natureza Zoological Park, Outeiro de Rei, 27122 Lugo, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: David S. Perlin
Received: 10 May 2017 / Revised: 30 May 2017 / Accepted: 31 May 2017 / Published: 2 June 2017
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Abstract

Abstract: There are certain saprophytic fungi in the soil able to develop an antagonistic effect against eggs of parasites. Some of these fungal species are ingested by animals during grazing, and survive in their feces after passing through the digestive tract. To identify and isolate ovicidal fungi in the feces of wild captive animals, a total of 60 fecal samples were taken from different wild animals kept captive in the Marcelle Natureza Zoological Park (Lugo, Spain). After the serial culture of the feces onto Petri dishes with different media, their parasicitide activity was assayed against eggs of trematodes (Calicophoron daubneyi) and ascarids (Parascaris equorum). Seven fungal genera were identified in the feces. Isolates from Fusarium, Lecanicillium, Mucor, Trichoderma, and Verticillium showed an ovicidal effect classified as type 3, because of their ability to adhere to the eggshell, penetrate, and damage permanently the inner embryo. Penicillium and Gliocladium developed a type 1 effect (hyphae attach to the eggshell but morphological damage was not provoked). These results provide very interesting and useful information about fungi susceptible for being used in biological control procedures against parasites. View Full-Text
Keywords: ovicidal fungi; zoological park; biological control; sustainability ovicidal fungi; zoological park; biological control; sustainability
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MDPI and ACS Style

Hernández, J.A.; Vázquez-Ruiz, R.A.; Cazapal-Monteiro, C.F.; Valderrábano, E.; Arroyo, F.L.; Francisco, I.; Miguélez, S.; Sánchez-Andrade, R.; Paz-Silva, A.; Arias, M.S. Isolation of Ovicidal Fungi from Fecal Samples of Captive Animals Maintained in a Zoological Park. J. Fungi 2017, 3, 29.

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