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J. Fungi 2017, 3(1), 12; doi:10.3390/jof3010012

Characterization of Blue Mold Penicillium Species Isolated from Stored Fruits Using Multiple Highly Conserved Loci

1
Key Laboratory of Biology and Genetic Resources of Tropical Crops, Ministry of Agriculture, Institute of Tropical Bioscience and Biotechnology, Chinese Academy of Tropical Agricultural Sciences, Haikou 5711001, China
2
Department of Plant Biology and Pathology, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, New Brunswick, NJ 08901, USA
3
Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education, Oak Ridge Associated Universities, Oak Ridge, TN 37831, USA
4
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service , Western Regional Research Center, Albany, CA 94710, USA
5
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Beltsville, Agricultural Research Center, Beltsville, MD 20705, USA
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: David S. Perlin
Received: 23 November 2016 / Revised: 23 February 2017 / Accepted: 27 February 2017 / Published: 1 March 2017
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Abstract

Penicillium is a large genus of common molds with over 400 described species; however, identification of individual species is difficult, including for those species that cause postharvest rots. In this study, blue rot fungi from stored apples and pears were isolated from a variety of hosts, locations, and years. Based on morphological and cultural characteristics and partial amplification of the β-tubulin locus, the isolates were provisionally identified as several different species of Penicillium. These isolates were investigated further using a suite of molecular DNA markers and compared to sequences of the ex-type for cognate species in GenBank, and were identified as P. expansum (3 isolates), P. solitum (3 isolates), P. carneum (1 isolate), and P. paneum (1 isolate). Three of the markers we used (ITS, internal transcribed spacer rDNA sequence; benA, β-tubulin; CaM, calmodulin) were suitable for distinguishing most of our isolates from one another at the species level. In contrast, we were unable to amplify RPB2 sequences from four of the isolates. Comparison of our sequences with cognate sequences in GenBank from isolates with the same species names did not always give coherent data, reinforcing earlier studies that have shown large intraspecific variability in many Penicillium species, as well as possible errors in some sequence data deposited in GenBank. View Full-Text
Keywords: blue molds; stored fruits; Penicillium spp.; ITS; benA; CaM blue molds; stored fruits; Penicillium spp.; ITS; benA; CaM
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Yin, G.; Zhang, Y.; Pennerman, K.K.; Wu, G.; Hua, S.S.T.; Yu, J.; Jurick, W.M., II; Guo, A.; Bennett, J.W. Characterization of Blue Mold Penicillium Species Isolated from Stored Fruits Using Multiple Highly Conserved Loci. J. Fungi 2017, 3, 12.

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