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J. Fungi 2016, 2(3), 22; doi:10.3390/jof2030022

Galactomannan and 1,3-β-d-Glucan Testing for the Diagnosis of Invasive Aspergillosis

Infectious Diseases Service, Department of Medicine, and Institute of Microbiology, Lausanne University Hospital, Lausanne 1011, Switzerland
Academic Editor: William J. Steinbach
Received: 27 April 2016 / Revised: 21 June 2016 / Accepted: 28 June 2016 / Published: 4 July 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Aspergillus fumigatus: From Diagnosis to Therapy)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [489 KB, uploaded 4 July 2016]   |  

Abstract

Invasive aspergillosis (IA) is a severe complication among hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients or patients with hematological malignancies and neutropenia following anti-cancer therapy. Moreover, IA is increasingly observed in other populations, such as solid-organ transplant recipients, patients with solid tumors or auto-immune diseases, and among intensive care unit patients. Frequent delay in diagnosis is associated with high mortality rates. Cultures from clinical specimens remain sterile in many cases and the diagnosis of IA often only relies on non-specific radiological signs in the presence of host risk factors. Tests for detection of galactomannan- (GM) and 1,3-β-d-glucan (BDG) are useful adjunctive tools for the early diagnosis of IA and may have a role in monitoring response to therapy. However, the sensitivity and specificity of these fungal biomarkers are not optimal and variations between patient populations are observed. This review discusses the role and interpretation of GM and BDG testing for the diagnosis of IA in different clinical samples (serum, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, cerebrospinal fluid) and different groups of patients (onco-hematological patients, solid-organ transplant recipients, other patients at risk of IA). View Full-Text
Keywords: Aspergillus fumigatus; invasive aspergillosis; fungal biomarkers; galactomannan; 1,3-β-d-glucan Aspergillus fumigatus; invasive aspergillosis; fungal biomarkers; galactomannan; 1,3-β-d-glucan
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Lamoth, F. Galactomannan and 1,3-β-d-Glucan Testing for the Diagnosis of Invasive Aspergillosis. J. Fungi 2016, 2, 22.

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