Next Article in Journal / Special Issue
Segregation of Central Ventricular Conduction System Lineages in Early SMA+ Cardiomyocytes Occurs Prior to Heart Tube Formation
Previous Article in Journal / Special Issue
Genetic Regulation of Sinoatrial Node Development and Pacemaker Program in the Venous Pole
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. 2016, 3(1), 1; doi:10.3390/jcdd3010001

Effect of Outflow Tract Banding on Embryonic Cardiac Hemodynamics

Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Washington, Stevens Way, Box 352600, Seattle, WA 98195, USA
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77840, USA
Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1550 Engineering Drive, ECB 2145, Madison, WI 53706, USA
Department of Biomedical Engineering, Oregon Health & Science University, 3303 SW Bond Ave. M/C CH13B, Portland, OR 97239, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Robert E. Poelmann and Monique R.M. Jongbloed
Received: 31 October 2015 / Revised: 10 December 2015 / Accepted: 18 December 2015 / Published: 24 December 2015
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [6869 KB, uploaded 24 December 2015]   |  


We analyzed heart wall motion and blood flow dynamics in chicken embryos using in vivo optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) embryo-specific modeling. We focused on the heart outflow tract (OFT) region of day 3 embryos, and compared normal (control) conditions to conditions after performing an OFT banding intervention, which alters hemodynamics in the embryonic heart and vasculature. We found that hemodynamics and cardiac wall motion in the OFT are affected by banding in ways that might not be intuitive a priori. In addition to the expected increase in ventricular blood pressure, and increase blood flow velocity and, thus, wall shear stress (WSS) at the band site, the characteristic peristaltic-like motion of the OFT was altered, further affecting flow and WSS. Myocardial contractility, however, was affected only close to the band site due to the physical restriction on wall motion imposed by the band. WSS were heterogeneously distributed in both normal and banded OFTs. Our results show how banding affects cardiac mechanics and can lead, in the future, to a better understanding of mechanisms by which altered blood flow conditions affect cardiac development leading to congenital heart disease. View Full-Text
Keywords: chicken embryonic heart; outflow tract; computational fluid dynamics (CFD); congenital heart disease; cardiovascular development; hemodynamics; cardiac development chicken embryonic heart; outflow tract; computational fluid dynamics (CFD); congenital heart disease; cardiovascular development; hemodynamics; cardiac development

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary material

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Chivukula, V.K.; Goenezen, S.; Liu, A.; Rugonyi, S. Effect of Outflow Tract Banding on Embryonic Cardiac Hemodynamics. J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. 2016, 3, 1.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. EISSN 2308-3425 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top