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J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. 2015, 2(3), 141-164; doi:10.3390/jcdd2030141

Vascular Calcification and Stone Disease: A New Look towards the Mechanism

1
Calcium Signaling Laboratory, Research Service, Veterans Affairs Medical Center, 50 Irving Street, NW, Washington, DC 20422, USA
2
Department of Pharmacology and Physiology, Georgetown University, 3900 Reservoir Road, NW, Washington, DC 20007, USA
3
Department of Pharmacology and Physiology, School of Medicine, George Washington University, Ross Hall 2300 Eye Street, NW, Washington, DC 20037, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Andy Wessels
Received: 31 March 2015 / Revised: 11 June 2015 / Accepted: 16 June 2015 / Published: 25 June 2015
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Abstract

Calcium phosphate (CaP) crystals are formed in pathological calcification as well as during stone formation. Although there are several theories as to how these crystals can develop through the combined interactions of biochemical and biophysical factors, the exact mechanism of such mineralization is largely unknown. Based on the published scientific literature, we found that common factors can link the initial stages of stone formation and calcification in anatomically distal tissues and organs. For example, changes to the spatiotemporal conditions of the fluid flow in tubular structures may provide initial condition(s) for CaP crystal generation needed for stone formation. Additionally, recent evidence has provided a meaningful association between the active participation of proteins and transcription factors found in the bone forming (ossification) mechanism that are also involved in the early stages of kidney stone formation and arterial calcification. Our review will focus on three topics of discussion (physiological influences—calcium and phosphate concentration—and similarities to ossification, or bone formation) that may elucidate some commonality in the mechanisms of stone formation and calcification, and pave the way towards opening new avenues for further research. View Full-Text
Keywords: calcium phosphate; kidney; calcification; physiologic; calculi; ossification; ectopic calcium phosphate; kidney; calcification; physiologic; calculi; ossification; ectopic
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Yiu, A.J.; Callaghan, D.; Sultana, R.; Bandyopadhyay, B.C. Vascular Calcification and Stone Disease: A New Look towards the Mechanism. J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. 2015, 2, 141-164.

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J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. EISSN 2308-3425 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
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