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Geriatrics 2017, 2(1), 12; doi:10.3390/geriatrics2010012

Muscle Strength and Functional Ability in Recreational Female Golfers and Less Active Non-Golfers over the Age of 80 Years

1
Faculty of Health Sciences, Building 45, University of Southampton, Southampton SO17 1BJ, UK
2
School of Nursing & Midwifery, University College Cork, Cork T12 AK54, Ireland
3
Arthritis Research UK Centre for Sport, Exercise and Osteoarthritis, Nottingham NG7 2UH, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Joseph S. K. Kwan
Received: 15 December 2016 / Revised: 27 February 2017 / Accepted: 1 March 2017 / Published: 4 March 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Frailty and Sarcopenia in Old Age)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [320 KB, uploaded 4 March 2017]   |  

Abstract

Muscle strength and functional ability decline with age. Physical activity can slow the decline but whether recreational golf is associated with slower decline is unknown. This cross-sectional, observational study aimed to examine the feasibility of testing muscle strength and functional ability in older female golfers and non-golfers in community settings. Thirty-one females over aged 80, living independently (golfers n = 21, mean age 83, standard deviation (±) 2.1 years); non-golfers, n = 10 (80.8 ± 1.03 years) were studied. Maximal isometric contractions of handgrip and quadriceps were tested on the dominant side. Functional ability was assessed using the Timed Up and Go (TUG) and health-related quality of life using the Short Form-36 questionnaire. Grip strength, normalised to body mass, was greater in golfers (0.33 ± 0.06 kgF/kg) than non-golfers (0.29 ± 0.06), however, the difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.051). Quadriceps strength did not differ (golfers 2.78 ± 0.74 N/kg; non-golfers 2.69 ± 0.83; p = 0.774). TUG times were significantly faster (p = 0.027) in golfers (10.4 ± 1.9 s) than non-golfers (12.6 ± 3.21 s; within sarcopenic category). Quality of life was significantly higher in golfers for the physical categories (Physical Function p < 0.001; Physical p = 0.033; Bodily pain p = 0.028; Vitality p = 0.047) but psychosocial categories did not differ. These findings indicated that the assessment techniques were feasible in both groups and sensitive enough to detect some differences between groups. The indication that golf was associated with better physical function than non-golfers in females over 80 needs to be examined by prospective randomised controlled trials to determine whether golf can help to achieve the recommended guidelines for strengthening exercise to protect against sarcopenia. View Full-Text
Keywords: older females; physical activity; golf; muscle strength; sarcopenia older females; physical activity; golf; muscle strength; sarcopenia
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Supplementary material

  • Externally hosted supplementary file 1
    Link: http://www.hepaeurope2016.eu/filestore/Filetoupload,722338,en.pdf
    Description: Abstract of presentation at the World Health Organisation European Network for the promotion of Health-Enhancing Physical Activity (HEPA Europe) Conference, Belfast, September 2016. The Conference Handbook includes an overview of the Symposium on Golf, Physical Activity and Health (led by Nanette Mutire) and presentation abstracts were not printed in the handbook. See file attached for abstract: 166. Stokes M, Brown S, Agyapong-Badu S, Warner M, Ewings S, Martinez S, Herrick I, Buckley C, Rowsome K, Stockdale A, Wootton J, Webb N, Murray A, Hawkes R, Samuel D. Golf in later life: musculoskeletal function and quality of life in recreational female golfers. Symposium on Golf, physical activity and health. World Health Organisation European Network for the promotion of Health-Enhancing Physical Activity (HEPA Europe) Conference, Belfast, September 2016

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MDPI and ACS Style

Stockdale, A.; Webb, N.; Wootton, J.; Drennan, J.; Brown, S.; Stokes, M. Muscle Strength and Functional Ability in Recreational Female Golfers and Less Active Non-Golfers over the Age of 80 Years. Geriatrics 2017, 2, 12.

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