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Geriatrics 2016, 1(4), 30; doi:10.3390/geriatrics1040030

The Indirect Costs of Late-Life Depression in the United States: A Literature Review and Perspective

Department of Psychiatry, NewYork-Presbyterian Hospital/Weill Cornell Medicine, 525 E 68th St, New York, NY 10065, USA
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Ralf Lobmann
Received: 16 July 2016 / Revised: 31 October 2016 / Accepted: 7 November 2016 / Published: 14 November 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Depressive Disorder in the Elderly)
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Abstract

Late-life depression is a leading cause of disability in older adults and is associated with significant economic burden. This article draws from the existing literature and publicly available databases to describe the relative importance of the indirect costs associated with late-life depression. The authors found that unpaid caregiver costs represent the largest component of the indirect costs of late-life depression, with the highest level of economic burden attributed to the majority of care recipients who have fewer depressive symptoms. Other indirect costs, such as productivity losses related to early retirement, reduced ability to fulfill work and family functions and diminished financial success were mostly under-appreciated in the literature. Also, mortality cost estimates provided little clarity, employing variable methodologies and revealing mixed results. With respect to late-life suicide studies, studies approximated both economic costs and savings. More rigorous efforts to evaluate the indirect costs of late-life depression would afford a better understanding of the social and economic toll of this disorder and could influence the allocation of resources for research and treatment. View Full-Text
Keywords: late-life depression; geriatric depression; indirect costs; economic burden; cost-of-illness; caregiver burden late-life depression; geriatric depression; indirect costs; economic burden; cost-of-illness; caregiver burden
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Snow, C.E.; Abrams, R.C. The Indirect Costs of Late-Life Depression in the United States: A Literature Review and Perspective. Geriatrics 2016, 1, 30.

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