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Vet. Sci. 2017, 4(1), 1; doi:10.3390/vetsci4010001

In Vitro Research Tools in the Field of Human Immediate Drug Hypersensitivity and Their Present Use in Small Animal Veterinary Medicine

Department of Veterinary Clinical Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Illinois–Urbana-Champaign, 2001 South Lincoln Av, Urbana, IL 61802, USA
Academic Editor: Rob Siebers
Received: 4 October 2016 / Revised: 23 November 2016 / Accepted: 13 December 2016 / Published: 22 December 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Allergies in Animals and Humans)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [738 KB, uploaded 22 December 2016]   |  

Abstract

Drug hypersensitivity reactions (DHR) are immune-mediated idiosyncratic adverse drug events. Type I DHR are often referred to as “immediate” and involve B lymphocyte-secreted IgE that bind to the membrane of basophils and mast cells, inducing their degranulation. This review presents various in vitro tests that were developed in the field of human type I HS and implemented as clinical diagnostic tools in human cases of immediate DHR. The respective strengths and weaknesses of each test will be discussed in parallel of validation data such as specificity and sensitivity whenever available. Some of them have also been used as diagnostic tools in veterinary medicine, but not in cases of immediate DHR. Most of these diagnostic tools can be categorized into humoral and cellular tests. The former tests measure serum concentrations of factors, such as histamine, tryptase, and drug-specific IgE. The latter assays quantify markers of drug-induced basophil activation or drug-specific lymphocyte proliferation. Pharmacogenetic markers have also been investigated in immediate DHR, but not as extensively as in non-immediate ones. Throughout, practical aspects and limitations of the tests, as well as sensitivity and specificity parameters, will be presented. In addition, the experience of veterinary medicine with these diagnostic tools will be summarized. However, to date, none of them has ever been reported in a veterinary case of type I DHR. View Full-Text
Keywords: drug allergy; anaphylaxis; biomarkers drug allergy; anaphylaxis; biomarkers
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Lavergne, L.S. In Vitro Research Tools in the Field of Human Immediate Drug Hypersensitivity and Their Present Use in Small Animal Veterinary Medicine. Vet. Sci. 2017, 4, 1.

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