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Vet. Sci. 2015, 2(3), 150-184; doi:10.3390/vetsci2030150

Mechanisms of Drug Resistance in Veterinary Oncology— A Review with an Emphasis on Canine Lymphoma

Department of Clinical Sciences of Companion Animals, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Utrecht University, Yalelaan 108, 3508 TD, Utrecht, The Netherlands
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Jaime F. Modiano
Received: 4 June 2015 / Revised: 22 July 2015 / Accepted: 4 August 2015 / Published: 12 August 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Comparative Pathogenesis of Cancers in Animals and Humans)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [635 KB, uploaded 12 August 2015]   |  


Drug resistance (DR) is the major limiting factor in the successful treatment of systemic neoplasia with cytotoxic chemotherapy. DR can be either intrinsic or acquired, and although the development and clinical implications are different, the underlying mechanisms are likely to be similar. Most causes for DR are pharmacodynamic in nature, result from adaptations within the tumor cell and include reduced drug uptake, increased drug efflux, changes in drug metabolism or drug target, increased capacity to repair drug‐induced DNA damage or increased resistance to apoptosis. The role of active drug efflux transporters, and those of the ABC‐transporter family in particular, have been studied extensively in human oncology and to a lesser extent in veterinary medicine. Methods reported to assess ABC‐transporter status include detection of the actual protein (Western blot, immunohistochemistry), mRNA or ABC‐transporter function. The three major ABC‐transporters associated with DR in human oncology are ABCB1 or P‐gp, ABCC1 or MRP1, and ABCG2 or BCRP, and have been demonstrated in canine cell lines, healthy dogs and dogs with cancer. Although this supports a causative role for these ABC‐transporters in DR cytotoxic agents in the dog, the relative contribution to the clinical phenotype of DR in canine cancer remains an area of debate and requires further prospective studies. View Full-Text
Keywords: cancer; dog; multi‐drug resistance; chemotherapy; P‐gp; MRP1; BCRP; non‐Hodgkin; therapy cancer; dog; multi‐drug resistance; chemotherapy; P‐gp; MRP1; BCRP; non‐Hodgkin; therapy

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Zandvliet, M.; Teske, E. Mechanisms of Drug Resistance in Veterinary Oncology— A Review with an Emphasis on Canine Lymphoma. Vet. Sci. 2015, 2, 150-184.

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