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Hydrology 2017, 4(3), 40; doi:10.3390/hydrology4030040

Water Balance Analysis over the Niger Inland Delta-Mali: Spatio-Temporal Dynamics of the Flooded Area and Water Losses

1
GRP Climate Change and Water Resources, West African Science Service Center on Climate Change and Adapted Land Use (WASCAL), University of Abomey Calavi, Cotonou BP 526, Benin
2
Center for Development Research (ZEF), University of Bonn, Bonn 53113, Germany
3
Regional Center AGRHYMET, Niamey BP 11011, Niger
4
Department of Geography, University of Bonn, Meckenheimer Allee 166, Bonn 53115, Germany
5
Department of Civil Engineering, University of Ottawa, 161 Louis Pasteur office A113, Ottawa, ON K1N6N5, Canada
6
United Nations University Institute for Water, Environment and Health (UNU-INWEH), 204-175 Longwood Road South, Hamilton, ON L8P 0A1, Canada
7
Ecole Nationale d’Ingénieurs Abderhamane Baba Touré (ENI-ABT), Bamako BP 242, Mali
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 2 July 2017 / Revised: 7 August 2017 / Accepted: 15 August 2017 / Published: 18 August 2017
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Abstract

The Niger Inland Delta (NID) wetland comprises a large flooded area that plays an important role in the ecosystem services. This study provides a comprehensive understanding of the NID’s hydro-climatological functioning using water balance approach. After a clear description of the water budget’s elements specific to the NID catchment, a spatial and temporal dynamics of the annual flood across the NID over the period 2000–2009 was performed using data from satellite QuickSCAT and its associated sensor SeaWinds. The estimated areas were used along with observed discharge and remotely-sensed climatic data to quantitatively evaluate each water balance component. The results indicate: (i) a clear spatiotemporal of the flooded areas varied between 25,000 km2 in wet periods and 2000 km2 in dry periods; (ii) an average evapotranspiration loss of 17.31 km3 (43% of the total inflow) was assessed in the catchment; (iii) precipitation’s contribution to the NID’s budget totals 5.16 km3 (12.8% of the total inflow); and (iv) the contribution of return flow from irrigated fields totals 1.8 km3 (4.5% of the total inflow, among which 1.2 km3 are from Office du Niger) to the flooded areas, refined the NID’s water balance estimates. Knowledge gained on NID’s water balance analysis will be used to develop and calibrate hydrological models in the Niger Inland Delta of the basin. View Full-Text
Keywords: remote sensing flooded area extent; evapotranspiration models; water losses; return flow; water balance remote sensing flooded area extent; evapotranspiration models; water losses; return flow; water balance
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Ibrahim, M.; Wisser, D.; Ali, A.; Diekkrüger, B.; Seidou, O.; Mariko, A.; Afouda, A. Water Balance Analysis over the Niger Inland Delta-Mali: Spatio-Temporal Dynamics of the Flooded Area and Water Losses. Hydrology 2017, 4, 40.

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