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Hydrology 2017, 4(1), 6; doi:10.3390/hydrology4010006

Revisiting Cent-Fonts Fluviokarst Hydrological Properties with Conservative Temperature Approximation

1
Laboratoire Géosciences Montpellier, CNRS/UM2, 34095 Montpellier CEDEX 9, France
2
Minnesota Supercomputing Institute and Department of Earth Sciences, University of Minnesota, 310 Pillsbury Dr. SE, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA
3
School of Environmental Studies, China University of Geosciences, 388 Lumo Road, Wuhan 430074, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Abdon Atangana
Received: 28 November 2016 / Revised: 6 January 2017 / Accepted: 16 January 2017 / Published: 24 January 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Groundwater Flow)
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Abstract

We assess the errors produced by considering temperature as a conservative tracer in fluviokarst studies. Heat transfer that occurs between karstic Conduit System (CS) and Porous Fractured Matrix (PFM) is the reason why one should be careful in making this assumption without caution. We consider the karstic aquifer as an Open Thermodynamic System (OTS), which boundaries are permeable to thermal energy and water. The first principle of thermodynamics allows considering the enthalpy balance between the input and output flows. Combined with a continuity equation this leads to a two-equation system involving flows and temperatures. Steady conditions are approached during the recession period or during particular phases of pumping test experiments. After a theoretical study of the error induced by the conservative assumption in karst, we have applied the method to revisit the data collected during a complete campaign of pumping test. The method, restricted to selected data allowed retrieving values of base flow, mixing of flow, intrusions of streams, and aquifer answer to drawdown. The applicability of the method has been assessed in terms of propagation of the temporal fluctuations trough the solving but also in terms of conservative assumption itself. Our results allow retrieving the main hydrological properties of the karst as observed on field (timed volumetric samplings, geochemical analyses, step pumping test and allogenic intrusion of streams). This consistency argues in favor of the applicability of the conservative temperature method to investigating fluviokarst systems under controlled conditions. View Full-Text
Keywords: groundwater hydrology; karstic hydrology; energy budget; water energy interactions; water resource; modeling; conservative tracer; temperature; mixing groundwater hydrology; karstic hydrology; energy budget; water energy interactions; water resource; modeling; conservative tracer; temperature; mixing
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Machetel, P.; Yuen, D.A. Revisiting Cent-Fonts Fluviokarst Hydrological Properties with Conservative Temperature Approximation. Hydrology 2017, 4, 6.

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