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Hydrology 2015, 2(2), 48-68; doi:10.3390/hydrology2020048

Assessment of Hydrogeochemistry and Environmental Isotopes in Karst Springs of Makook Anticline, Kurdistan Region, Iraq

1
Institute of Geology, Technische Universität Bergakademie Freiberg, Gustav Zeuner Str.12, 09599 Freiberg, Germany
2
Department Catchment Hydrology, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research-UFZ, Theodor-Lieser-Str. 4, 06120 Halle (Saale), Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Okke Batelaan
Received: 16 November 2014 / Accepted: 9 March 2015 / Published: 25 March 2015
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [4262 KB, uploaded 25 March 2015]   |  

Abstract

Karst springs of the Makook anticline were investigated to get more insight into the hydrogeologic, hydraulic, and hydrodynamic behavior of this complex karst system. Eight springs were studied in terms of hydrogeochemical constituents as well as δ18O and δ2H during September 2011 to November 2012. For the first time, the local meteoric water line was plotted for the area based on precipitation data from the period November 2011 to April 2012. The regional meteoric line plots between the global and Mediterranean meteoric water lines. The majority of the spring samples plot between the local and Mediterranean meteoric water lines implying influences by Mediterranean air masses, rapid infiltration of rainfall through the karst system and a short residence time (shallow karst aquifers). The correlation of d-excess and saturation index of halite was used to evaluate the evaporation process in karst waters of the area. The temporal variation in isotopic composition of karst springs was observed making it possible to distinguish between different origins for springs and indicate a possible connection between the aquifers and depending on this, the karst system can be classified into three aquifers: Behkme aquifer, Kometan aquifer, and Shiranish aquifer. View Full-Text
Keywords: karst springs; Bekhme; d-excess; environmental isotopes; local meteoric water line; Kurdistan Region karst springs; Bekhme; d-excess; environmental isotopes; local meteoric water line; Kurdistan Region
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Mustafa, O.; Merkel, B.; Weise, S.M. Assessment of Hydrogeochemistry and Environmental Isotopes in Karst Springs of Makook Anticline, Kurdistan Region, Iraq. Hydrology 2015, 2, 48-68.

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