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Medicines 2018, 5(2), 45;

In Vitro Iron Bioavailability of Brazilian Food-Based by-Products

Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA), Universidade de São Paulo (USP), Av. Centenário, 303, 13416-000 Piracicaba, SP, Brazil
Norwich Medical School, University of East Anglia, Norwich NR4 7TJ, UK
Department of Life and Sports Sciences, Faculty of Engineering & Science, University of Greenwich, Medway Campus, Chatham Maritime, Kent ME4 4TB, UK
Current association: Instituto de Agroquímica y Tecnología de Alimentos (IATA-CSIC), Avenida Agustín Escardino 7, 46980 Paterna (Valencia), Spain.
Current association: Discipline of Medicine, University of Adelaide, The Queen Elizabeth Hospital and the Basil Hetzel Institute for Translational Health Research, Woodville, SA 5011, Australia.
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 31 March 2018 / Revised: 6 May 2018 / Accepted: 7 May 2018 / Published: 16 May 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Medicinal Plants and Foods)
Full-Text   |   PDF [1239 KB, uploaded 16 May 2018]   |  


Background: Iron deficiency is a public health problem in many low- and middle-income countries. Introduction of agro-industrial food by-products, as additional source of nutrients, could help alleviate this micronutrient deficiency, provide alternative sources of nutrients and calories in developed countries, and be a partial solution for disposal of agro-industry by-products. Methods: The aim of this study was to determine iron bioavailability of 5 by-products from Brazilian agro-industry (peels from cucumber, pumpkin, and jackfruit, cupuaçu seed peel, and rice bran), using the in vitro digestion/ Caco-2 cell model; with Caco-2 cell ferritin formation as a surrogate marker of iron bioavailability. Total and dialyzable Fe, macronutrients, the concentrations of iron-uptake inhibitors (phytic acid, tannins, fiber) and their correlation with iron bioavailability were also evaluated. Results: The iron content of all by-products was high, but the concentration of iron and predicted bioavailability were not related. Rice bran and cupuaçu seed peel had the highest amount of phytic acid and tannins, and lowest iron bioavailability. Cucumber peels alone, and with added extrinsic Fe, and pumpkin peels with extrinsic added iron, had the highest iron bioavailability. Conclusion: The results suggest that cucumber and pumpkin peel could be valuable alternative sources of bioavailable Fe to reduce iron deficiency in at-risk populations. View Full-Text
Keywords: Caco-2 cells; iron; bioavailability; phytic acid; agro by-products; food waste; waste utilization Caco-2 cells; iron; bioavailability; phytic acid; agro by-products; food waste; waste utilization

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Chiocchetti, G.M.; De Nadai Fernandes, E.A.; Wawer, A.A.; Fairweather-Tait, S.; Christides, T. In Vitro Iron Bioavailability of Brazilian Food-Based by-Products. Medicines 2018, 5, 45.

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