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Medicines 2017, 4(4), 84; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicines4040084

Endogenous Sphingolipid Signaling Pathway Implicated in the Action of Croton membranaceus on the Prostate Gland in BPH Patients

1
Chemical Pathology Unit, Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, School of Biomedical and Allied Health Sciences, College of Health Sciences, University of Ghana, P.O. Box KB 143, Korle-bu, Accra, Ghana
2
Department of Pharmacy, Ghana Police Hospital, Cantonments, Accra, Ghana
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Gerhard Litscher
Received: 1 October 2017 / Revised: 13 November 2017 / Accepted: 15 November 2017 / Published: 18 November 2017
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Abstract

Background: Croton membranaceus extract has apoptotic effects on BPH-1 cells. This study determined if the apoptotic effects were created through the ceramide pathway. Methods: The study was a follow-up to a previous observational study of 30 histologically confirmed patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) who were on C. membranaceus ethanolic extract at 20 mg t.i.d orally for 3 mo. Thereafter, total and free prostate-specific antigen (PSA), lipid profile plus Apo lipoprotein A and B, ceramide/Sphingophospho-kinase 1 (SphK1) and 2 (SphK2), sphingosine lyase (SPL), the cytotoxic adducts of oxidative stress 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4HNE) and malondialdehyde (MDA), were determined. Results: Total and free PSA were significantly (p < 0.05) different after treatment. Apo lipoprotein A was significantly different (p = 0.024). The SphK1/SphK2 ratio reduced significantly (p = 0.049). Furthermore, SPL, ceramide, and MDA increased significantly after treatment (p = 0.05, p = 0.004, and p = 0.007, respectively). A weak positive correlation was found between high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and SphK1, and HDL and ceramide before treatment (p = 0.036, r = 0.3826; p = 0.018, r = 0.4286, respectively. Conclusions: C. membranaceus uses the ceramide pathway by modulating the SphK1/SphK2 ratio and increasing SPL to generate oxidative stress and consequently apoptosis. View Full-Text
Keywords: Ceramide; sphingolipid; prostate; Croton membranaceus Ceramide; sphingolipid; prostate; Croton membranaceus
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Asare, G.A.; Anang, Y.; Afriyie, D.K.; Amoah, B.Y.; Asiedu, B.; Doku, D.; Ocansey, H.S.; Odei Danso, N.Y.; Tekpor, P.; Osam, S. Endogenous Sphingolipid Signaling Pathway Implicated in the Action of Croton membranaceus on the Prostate Gland in BPH Patients. Medicines 2017, 4, 84.

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