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Medicines 2017, 4(2), 25; doi:10.3390/medicines4020025

Anti-Bacterial Activity of Phenolic Compounds against Streptococcus pyogenes

1
Department of Plant, Food, and Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture, Dalhousie University, Truro, NS B2N 5E3, Canada
2
Department of Process Engineering and Applied Science, Faculty of Engineering, Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS B3H 4R2, Canada
3
Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS B3H 4H7, Canada
Current address: National Food Institute, Technical University of Denmark, 2800 Kgs. Lyngby, Denmark.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Eleni Skaltsa
Received: 1 April 2017 / Revised: 26 April 2017 / Accepted: 26 April 2017 / Published: 1 May 2017
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Abstract

Background: Worldwide, Streptococcus pyogenes is the leading cause of bacterial pharyngitis. To reduce the use of antibiotics, antimicrobial phytochemical-containing remedies, which have long been in use in traditional medicine, may provide new approaches for management of streptococcal pharyngitis. The objective of this study was to assess the inhibitory activities of 25 natural phenolic compounds against three strains of S. pyogenes. Methods: After an initial screening, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of the nine most effective phenolic compounds were determined. The effect of four compounds with the lowest MIC and MBC on streptococcal growth and biofilm formation was also studied. Results: 1,2-Naphthoquinone and 5-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone elicited the greatest anti-S. pyogenes activities with MICs ranging from 0.39 to 6.25 µg mL−1 and MBCs of 100 µg mL−1. Both naphthoquinones inhibited the biofilm formation at concentrations ranging from 12.5 to 50 µg mL−1. Biofilm reduction and altered bacterial cell structures were visible in scanning electron microscopy images of naphthoquinone-treated cells. Conclusion: In conclusion, 1,2-naphthoquinone and 5-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone inhibit S. pyogenes and should be further investigated as candidates for the management of streptococcal pharyngitis. View Full-Text
Keywords: pharyngitis; strep throat; biofilm; naphthoquinone; infection; disease; polyphenols pharyngitis; strep throat; biofilm; naphthoquinone; infection; disease; polyphenols
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MDPI and ACS Style

Macé, S.; Truelstrup Hansen, L.; Rupasinghe, H.P.V. Anti-Bacterial Activity of Phenolic Compounds against Streptococcus pyogenes. Medicines 2017, 4, 25.

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