Next Article in Journal
Current Usage of Traditional Chinese Medicine for Breast Cancer—A Narrative Approach to the Experiences of Women with Breast Cancer in Australia—A Pilot Study
Next Article in Special Issue
The Effect of Acupuncture on Visual Function in Patients with Congenital and Acquired Nystagmus
Previous Article in Journal
Dietary Isoflavones and Breast Cancer Risk
Previous Article in Special Issue
A Population-Based Cohort Study on the Ability of Acupuncture to Reduce Post-Stroke Depression
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Medicines 2017, 4(2), 19; doi:10.3390/medicines4020019

Nonspecific Feelings Expected and Experienced during or Immediately after Electroacupuncture: A Pilot Study in a Teaching Situation

1
Department of Allied Health Professions and Midwifery, School of Health and Social Work, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield AL10 9AB, UK
2
Northern College of Acupuncture, York YO1 6LJ, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Gerhard Litscher
Received: 29 January 2017 / Revised: 17 March 2017 / Accepted: 28 March 2017 / Published: 8 April 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Acupuncture – Basic Research and Clinical Application)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [3216 KB, uploaded 13 April 2017]   |  

Abstract

Background: Some feelings elicited by acupuncture-type interventions are “nonspecific”, interpretable as resulting from the placebo effect, our own self-healing capacities—or, indeed, the flow of qi. Expectation is thought to contribute to these nonspecific effects. Here we describe the use of two innovative 20-item questionnaires (EXPre20 and EXPost20) in a teaching situation. Methods: Respondents were acupuncture students or practitioners on electroacupuncture (EA) training courses (N = 68). EXPre20 and EXPost20 questionnaires were completed before and after receiving individualised treatment administered by colleagues. Respondents were also asked about their prior experience of EA or transcutaneous electroacupuncture stimulation (TEAS). Results: Respondents expected significantly more items to change than not to change, but significantly fewer were experienced as changing. Increases in given questionnaire items were both expected and experienced significantly more often than decreases. “Tingling”, “Relaxation”, and “Relief” or “Warmth” were most often expected to increase or were experienced as such, and “Pain” and “Tension” to decrease or experienced as decreasing. Expectations of change or no change were confirmed more often than not, particularly for “Tingling” and “Tension”. This was not the result of the personal respondent style. Cluster analysis suggested the existence of two primary feeling clusters, “Relaxation” and “Alertness”. Conclusions: Feelings experienced during or immediately after acupuncture-type interventions may depend both on prior experience and expectation. View Full-Text
Keywords: electroacupuncture; nonspecific feelings; expectation; placebo; qi; cluster analysis electroacupuncture; nonspecific feelings; expectation; placebo; qi; cluster analysis
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary material

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Mayor, D.F.; McClure, L.S.; McClure, J.H.C. Nonspecific Feelings Expected and Experienced during or Immediately after Electroacupuncture: A Pilot Study in a Teaching Situation. Medicines 2017, 4, 19.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Medicines EISSN 2305-6320 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top