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Medicines 2016, 3(2), 13; doi:10.3390/medicines3020013

Essential Oils from the Malaysian Citrus (Rutaceae) Medicinal Plants

1
Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Johor Bahru, Johor, Malaysia
2
Medicinal Chemistry and Natural Products Research Group, School of Pharmacy and Biomolecular Sciences, Liverpool John Moores University, James Persons Building, Byrom Street, Liverpool L3 3AF, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Ronan Batista
Received: 18 January 2016 / Revised: 11 May 2016 / Accepted: 16 May 2016 / Published: 3 June 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Essential Oils: Chemistry and Bioactivity)
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Abstract

This review article appraises the extraction methods, compositions, and bioactivities of the essential oils from the Citrus species (family: Rutaceae) endemic to Malaysia including C. aurantifolia, C. grandis, C. hystrix, and C. microcarpa. Generally, the fresh peels and leaves of the Citrus species were extracted using different methods such as steam and water distillation, Likens-Nikerson extraction, solvent extraction, and headspace solid-phase micro-extraction (HS-SPME). Most of the Citrus oils were found to be rich in monoterpene hydrocarbons with limonene (1) as the major component identified in the peels of C. aurantifolia (39.3%), C. grandis (81.6%–96.9%), and C. microcarpa (94.0%), while sabinene (19) was the major component in the peels of C. hystrix (36.4%–48.5%). In addition, citronellal (20) (61.7%–72.5%), linalool (18) (56.5%), and hedycaryol (23) (19.0%) were identified as the major components in the oil of C. hystrix leaves, C. grandis blossom and C. microcarpa leaves, respectively. The C. hystrix essential oil has been experimentally shown to have antimicrobial and antifeedant activities, while no bioactivity study has been reported on the essential oils of other Malaysian Citrus species. View Full-Text
Keywords: Citrus; Rutaceae; essential oils; extraction; composition; bioactivities Citrus; Rutaceae; essential oils; extraction; composition; bioactivities
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Md Othman, S.N.A.; Hassan, M.A.; Nahar, L.; Basar, N.; Jamil, S.; Sarker, S.D. Essential Oils from the Malaysian Citrus (Rutaceae) Medicinal Plants. Medicines 2016, 3, 13.

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