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Medicines 2014, 1(1), 32-55; doi:10.3390/medicines1010032

Antileishmanial Potential of Tropical Rainforest Plant Extracts

1
Parasitology Department, Institute of Tropical Medicine "Pedro Kouri", 10400 Havana, Cuba
2
Department of Chemistry, University of Alabama in Huntsville, Huntsville, AL 35899, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 9 October 2014 / Revised: 11 November 2014 / Accepted: 12 November 2014 / Published: 19 November 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Medicinal Plants and Phytomedicines)
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Abstract

A total of 115 different plant extracts from our collection, representing 96 plant species, have been evaluated for in vitro antileishmanial activity against L. amazonensis promastigotes. In addition, the extracts were screened for cytotoxic activity against BALB/c mouse macrophages in order to assess a selectivity index. Crude extracts that showed a selectivity index (CC50 for macrophage / IC50 for promastigotes) ³ 5 or with IC50 < 12.5 μg/mL against promastigotes, a total of 28 extracts, were further screened for anti-amastigote activity. A total of 25 extracts showed promising activity against L. amazonensis promastigotes with low cytotoxic activity. Ten of these extracts showed selectivity indices, (CC50 for macrophages / IC50 for amastigotes) greater than 10 and are considered “hits”, worthy candidates for further phytochemical exploration: Conostegia xalapensis methanol bark extract, Endiandra palmerstonii bark extract, Eugenia monteverdensis acetone bark extract, Eugenia sp. “fine leaf” acetone bark extract, Exothea paniculata chloroform bark extract, Mallotus paniculatus ethanol bark extract, Matelea pseudobarbata ethanol extract, Quercus insignis ethanol bark extract, Sassafras albidum dichloromethane bark extract, and Stemmadenia donnell-smithii acetone bark extract. View Full-Text
Keywords: leishmaniasis; Leishmania amazonensis; Abaco island; Bahamas; Matabeleland; Zimbabwe; Monteverde; Costa Rica; Far North Queensland; Australia leishmaniasis; Leishmania amazonensis; Abaco island; Bahamas; Matabeleland; Zimbabwe; Monteverde; Costa Rica; Far North Queensland; Australia
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Monzote, L.; Piñón, A.; Setzer, W.N. Antileishmanial Potential of Tropical Rainforest Plant Extracts. Medicines 2014, 1, 32-55.

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