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Toxics 2018, 6(2), 25; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics6020025

Liver Injury by Carbon Tetrachloride Intoxication in 16 Patients Treated with Forced Ventilation to Accelerate Toxin Removal via the Lungs: A Clinical Report

Department of Internal Medicine II, Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Klinikum Hanau, 63450 Hanau, Academic Teaching Hospital of the Medical Faculty, Goethe University Frankfurt/Main, 60323 Frankfurt/Main, Germany
Received: 24 March 2018 / Revised: 17 April 2018 / Accepted: 20 April 2018 / Published: 27 April 2018

Abstract

Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) is an efficient but highly toxic solvent, used in households and commercially in the industry under regulatory surveillance to ensure safety at the working place and to protect the workers’ health. However, acute unintentional or intentional intoxications by CCl4 may rarely occur and are potentially life-threatening. In this review article, therapy options are discussed that are based on a literature review of traditional poisoning cases and the clinical experience with 16 patients with acute poisoning by CCl4. Among various therapy options, the CO2-induced hyperventilation therapy will be considered in detail as the most promising approach. This special therapy was developed because only around 1% of the intoxicating CCl4 is responsible for the liver injury after conversion to toxic radicals via microsomal cytochrome P450 2E1 whereas 99% of the solvent will leave the body unchanged by exhalation. Therefore, to enhance CCl4 elimination through the lungs, CO2 is added to the inspiration air at a flow rate of 2–3 L min−1 in order to achieve hyperventilation with a respiratory volume of 25–30 L min−1. Under this therapy, the clinical course was favorable in 15/16 patients, corresponding to 93.8%. In essence, patients with acute CCl4 intoxication should be treated by forced ventilation. View Full-Text
Keywords: carbon tetrachloride; aliphatic halogenated hydrocarbons; cytochrome P450 2E1; CO2-induced forced ventilation; hyperbaric oxygen treatment carbon tetrachloride; aliphatic halogenated hydrocarbons; cytochrome P450 2E1; CO2-induced forced ventilation; hyperbaric oxygen treatment
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Teschke, R. Liver Injury by Carbon Tetrachloride Intoxication in 16 Patients Treated with Forced Ventilation to Accelerate Toxin Removal via the Lungs: A Clinical Report. Toxics 2018, 6, 25.

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