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Toxics 2018, 6(2), 23; doi:10.3390/toxics6020023

Cancer Mortality in Residents of the Cadmium-Polluted Jinzu River Basin in Toyama, Japan

1
Department of Public Health, Kanazawa Medical University, Uchinada, Ishikawa 920-0293, Japan
2
Health Evaluation Center, Kanazawa Medical University Hospital, Uchinada, Ishikawa 920-0293, Japan
3
Medical Research Institute, Kanazawa Medical University, Uchinada, Ishikawa 920-0293, Japan
4
Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Chiba 260-8670, Japan
5
Department of Hygiene, Kanazawa Medical University, Uchinada, Ishikawa 920-0293, Japan
6
Department of Community Health Nursing, School of Health Sciences, Kanazawa University, Kanazawa 920-0942, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 28 February 2018 / Revised: 2 April 2018 / Accepted: 4 April 2018 / Published: 6 April 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cadmium Sources and Toxicity)
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Abstract

After 26 years, we followed up 7348 participants in a 1979–1984 health screening survey in the Jinzu River basin, the heaviest cadmium-polluted area in Japan. We assessed the associations of cadmium exposure levels and mortality from cancer and renal damage, indicated by records of proteinuria and glucosuria in the original survey. Mortality risks (hazard ratios) were analyzed using the Cox proportional hazards model, stratified by sex, after adjusting for age, smoking status, and hypertension, as indicated in the original survey records. In men, the adjusted hazard ratio for mortality from lung cancer was significantly lower in individuals residing in an area of historically high cadmium exposure and in subjects with a historical record of proteinuria, glucosuria, and glucoproteinuria. The risk of mortality from prostate cancer was borderline higher in cadmium-exposed men. In women, historical cadmium exposure was not associated with an increased risk of mortality from malignant neoplasms, but the adjusted hazard ratios for death from total malignant neoplasms or from renal and uterine cancers were significantly higher in exposed subjects with a historical record of proteinuria, glucosuria, and glucoproteinuria. These findings suggest that women residing in cadmium-polluted areas who exhibit markers of renal damage may be at risk of dying of cancer. View Full-Text
Keywords: cadmium; follow-up study; cause of death; mortality; environmental pollution; cancer cadmium; follow-up study; cause of death; mortality; environmental pollution; cancer
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Nishijo, M.; Nakagawa, H.; Suwazono, Y.; Nogawa, K.; Sakurai, M.; Ishizaki, M.; Kido, T. Cancer Mortality in Residents of the Cadmium-Polluted Jinzu River Basin in Toyama, Japan. Toxics 2018, 6, 23.

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