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Toxics 2017, 5(3), 14; doi:10.3390/toxics5030014

Characterization of Aerosols of Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles Following Three Generation Methods Using an Optimized Aerosolization System Designed for Experimental Inhalation Studies

1
Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, Chair in Toxicological Risk Assessment and Management, and University of Montreal Public Health, Research Institute (IRSPUM), University of Montreal, Roger-Gaudry Building, U424, P.O. Box 6128, Main Station, Montreal, QC H3C 3J7, Canada
2
Institute of Research of Hydro-Quebec (IREQ), 1800, boul. Lionel-Boulet, Varennes, QC J3X 1S1, Canada
3
Department of Comparative Biomedical Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Roy M. Harrison
Received: 5 May 2017 / Revised: 26 May 2017 / Accepted: 10 June 2017 / Published: 1 July 2017
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Abstract

Nanoparticles (NPs) can be released in the air in work settings, but various factors influence the exposure of workers. Controlled inhalation experiments can thus be conducted in an attempt to reproduce real-life exposure conditions and assess inhalation toxicology. Methods exist to generate aerosols, but it remains difficult to obtain nano-sized and stable aerosols suitable for inhalation experiments. The goal of this work was to characterize aerosols of titanium dioxide (TiO2) NPs, generated using a novel inhalation system equipped with three types of generators—a wet collision jet nebulizer, a dry dust jet and an electrospray aerosolizer—with the aim of producing stable aerosols with a nano-diameter average (<100 nm) and monodispersed distribution for future rodent exposures and toxicological studies. Results showed the ability of the three generation systems to provide good and stable dispersions of NPs, applicable for acute (continuous up to 8 h) and repeated (21-day) exposures. In all cases, the generated aerosols were composed mainly of small aggregates/agglomerates (average diameter <100 nm) with the electrospray producing the finest (average diameter of 70–75 mm) and least concentrated aerosols (between 0.150 and 2.5 mg/m3). The dust jet was able to produce concentrations varying from 1.5 to 150 mg/m3, and hence, the most highly concentrated aerosols. The nebulizer collision jet aerosolizer was the most versatile generator, producing both low (0.5 mg/m3) and relatively high concentrations (30 mg/m3). The three optimized generators appeared suited for possible toxicological studies of inhaled NPs. View Full-Text
Keywords: nanoparticles; TiO2; aerosol generators; collision jet; dust jet; electrospray aerosolizer nanoparticles; TiO2; aerosol generators; collision jet; dust jet; electrospray aerosolizer
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MDPI and ACS Style

Pujalté, I.; Serventi, A.; Noël, A.; Dieme, D.; Haddad, S.; Bouchard, M. Characterization of Aerosols of Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles Following Three Generation Methods Using an Optimized Aerosolization System Designed for Experimental Inhalation Studies. Toxics 2017, 5, 14.

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