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Toxics 2016, 4(4), 27; doi:10.3390/toxics4040027

Hair Microelement Profile as a Prognostic Tool in Parkinson’s Disease

1
Chemistry Unit, School of Science and Technology, University of Camerino, Via S. Agostino 1, Camerino 62032, Italy
2
Pharmacology Unit, School of Pharmacy via Gentile III da Varano, Camerino 62032, MC, Italy
3
Computer Science Division, School of Science and Technology, University of Camerino, Via del Bastione 1, Camerino 62032, Italy
4
Neurology Unit, AOORMN, San Salvatore Hospital, Pesaro 61121, Italy
5
Well Dynamics Applications Srl, Reggio Emilia 42123, Italy
6
Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Unit, School of Pharmacy Via gentile III da Varano, Camerino 62032, MC, Italy
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: David R. Wallace
Received: 17 August 2016 / Revised: 8 November 2016 / Accepted: 10 November 2016 / Published: 16 November 2016
(This article belongs to the Collection Xenobiotics in Developmental Neurotoxicity)
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Abstract

Changes in the homeostasis of metals and microelements have been demonstrated in Parkinson’s disease, whose etiology includes both a genetic and environmental basis. We studied the difference of microelements in the hair of Parkinson’s disease subjects (n = 46) compared with healthy controls (n = 24). Hair was chosen as a representative matrix to measure microelements, since it is a vehicle of substance excretion from the human body and it allows for long-term evaluation of metal exposure. An inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) analysis of hair collected from 24 Parkinson’s patients compared with their healthy relatives used as controls shows a significant decrease in Ca (U = 166, p = 0.012),), Mg (U = 187, p = 0.037), and Sr (U = 183, p = 0.030). Cd and Ca/Mg were decreased, and Cu was increased, in patients with respect to their healthy related controls at the limit of significance (p = 0.0501). Principal Component Analysis (PCA) of these microelements in hair shows a clustering into two groups according to gender, disease severity according to the Hoehn–Yahr scale, and pharmacological therapy. This pilot study represents a starting point for future investigations where a larger group of subjects will be involved to define other microelements useful when screening for early biomarkers of Parkinson’s disease. View Full-Text
Keywords: hair; microelements; biomarkers; Parkinson’s disease hair; microelements; biomarkers; Parkinson’s disease
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MDPI and ACS Style

Stefano, F.; Cinzia, N.; Marco, P.; Marco, G.; Rita, G.; Augusto, F.; Rosita, G. Hair Microelement Profile as a Prognostic Tool in Parkinson’s Disease. Toxics 2016, 4, 27.

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