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Toxics 2016, 4(3), 18; doi:10.3390/toxics4030018

The Synapse as a Central Target for Neurodevelopmental Susceptibility to Pesticides

1
Department of Environmental Health, Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA
2
Center for Neurodegenerative Disease, School of Medicine, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: David R. Wallace
Received: 30 June 2016 / Revised: 7 August 2016 / Accepted: 17 August 2016 / Published: 26 August 2016
(This article belongs to the Collection Xenobiotics in Developmental Neurotoxicity)
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Abstract

The developmental period of the nervous system is carefully orchestrated and highly vulnerable to alterations. One crucial factor of a properly-functioning nervous system is the synapse, as synaptic signaling is critical for the formation and maturation of neural circuits. Studies show that genetic and environmental impacts can affect diverse components of synaptic function. Importantly, synaptic dysfunction is known to be associated with neurologic and psychiatric disorders, as well as more subtle cognitive, psychomotor, and sensory defects. Given the importance of the synapse in numerous domains, we wanted to delineate the effects of pesticide exposure on synaptic function. In this review, we summarize current epidemiologic and molecular studies that demonstrate organochlorine, organophosphate, and pyrethroid pesticide exposures target the developing synapse. We postulate that the synapse plays a central role in synaptic vulnerability to pesticide exposure during neurodevelopment, and the synapse is a worthy candidate for investigating more subtle effects of chronic pesticide exposure in future studies. View Full-Text
Keywords: dopamine; GABA; glutamate; neurodevelopment; neurotoxicity; organochlorine; organophosphate; pesticide; pyrethroid; synapse dopamine; GABA; glutamate; neurodevelopment; neurotoxicity; organochlorine; organophosphate; pesticide; pyrethroid; synapse
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Vester, A.; Caudle, W.M. The Synapse as a Central Target for Neurodevelopmental Susceptibility to Pesticides. Toxics 2016, 4, 18.

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