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Open AccessCommunication
Toxics 2015, 3(4), 451-461; doi:10.3390/toxics3040451

Intergenerational Effect of Early Life Exposure to Permethrin: Changes in Global DNA Methylation and in Nurr1 Gene Expression

1
School of Advanced Studies, University of Camerino, Via Gentile III da Varano, Camerino 62032, Macerata, Italy
2
Gabbianelli Rosita, School of Pharmacy, University of Camerino, Via Gentile III da Varano, Camerino 62032, Macerata, Italy
3
Department of Biological Chemical and Pharmaceutical Sciences and Technologies (STEBICEF, Unit of Cellular Biology), University of Palermo, Palermo 90128, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Shu-Li Wang
Received: 4 September 2015 / Accepted: 11 November 2015 / Published: 19 November 2015
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Abstract

Environmental exposure to pesticides during the early stages of development represents an important risk factor for the onset of neurodegenerative diseases in adult age. Neonatal exposure to Permethrin (PERM), a member of the family of synthetic pyrethroids, can induce a Parkinson-like disease and cause some alterations in striatum of rats, involving both genetic and epigenetic pathways. Through gene expression analysis and global DNA methylation assessment in both PERM-treated parents and their untreated offspring, we investigated on the prospective intergenerational effect of this pesticide. Thirty-three percent of progeny presents the same Nurr1 alteration as rats exposed to permethrin in early life. A decrease in global genome-wide DNA methylation was measured in mothers exposed in early life to permethrin as well as in their offspring, whereas untreated rats have a hypermethylated genomic DNA. Further studies are however needed to elucidate the molecular mechanisms, but, despite this, an intergenerational PERM-induced damage on progenies has been identified for the first time. View Full-Text
Keywords: permethrin; intergenerational effect; Nurr1; global DNA methylation permethrin; intergenerational effect; Nurr1; global DNA methylation
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Bordoni, L.; Nasuti, C.; Mirto, M.; Caradonna, F.; Gabbianelli, R. Intergenerational Effect of Early Life Exposure to Permethrin: Changes in Global DNA Methylation and in Nurr1 Gene Expression. Toxics 2015, 3, 451-461.

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