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Foods 2018, 7(9), 135; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods7090135

Evaluation of Nutritional and Technological Attributes of Whole Wheat Based Bread Fortified with Chia Flour

1
Laboratoire de Chimie Agro-Industrielle (LCA), Université de Toulouse, INRA, INPT, 31030 Toulouse, France
2
Research Platform of Environmental Science, Doctoral School of Science and Technology, Lebanese University, Campus Rafic Hariri, BP 5, 1500 Hadath-Beirut, Lebanon
3
Department of Food Technology, Faculty of Food Technology, Latvia University of Life Sciences and Technologies, Riga street 22, LV-3001 Jelgava, Latvia
4
Département Génie Biologique, IUT A, Université Paul Sabatier, 32000 Auch, France
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 5 July 2018 / Revised: 27 August 2018 / Accepted: 27 August 2018 / Published: 30 August 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Grain)
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Abstract

The aim of this study was to investigate and compare the effect of wheat bread fortification with varied levels (2%, 4%, and 6%) of chia seed powder (full fat) and cakes (defatted, residue after oil extraction). Chia flour was added to whole wheat bread rich in vital wheat gluten for the first time. The breadcrumbs were assessed for their antioxidant activity, nutritional content, textural properties, color, and sensory profiles. The addition of chia seed powder, particularly in high levels, was more effective in improving antioxidant activity compared to bread fortified with chia cakes. Bread supplementation with chia flour improves its nutritional value, especially in the case of chia cakes. A higher moisture content and lower hardness were observed after bread fortification, the influence was more evident with the defatted cake than with seed powder. Fortification with chia flour led to darker breads without significantly affecting their global acceptability. However, the fortified bread showed better values than control in terms of sensory profile. These results suggest that the addition of chia seed powder and defatted cake can enhance the overall whole wheat bread quality. Our results also highlight that bread making could be an unconventional alternative for the exploitation of defatted chia seed. View Full-Text
Keywords: chia seed; chia cake; whole wheat bread; antioxidant activity; bread quality chia seed; chia cake; whole wheat bread; antioxidant activity; bread quality
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Sayed-Ahmad, B.; Talou, T.; Straumite, E.; Sabovics, M.; Kruma, Z.; Saad, Z.; Hijazi, A.; Merah, O. Evaluation of Nutritional and Technological Attributes of Whole Wheat Based Bread Fortified with Chia Flour. Foods 2018, 7, 135.

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