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Foods 2018, 7(7), 98; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods7070098

Characterization of Aroma-Active Compounds in Seed Extract of Black Cumin (Nigella sativa L.) by Aroma Extract Dilution Analysis

1
Department of Food Processing, Naci Topcuoglu Vocational High School, Gaziantep University, 27600 Gaziantep, Turkey
2
Department of Food Engineering, Faculty of Agriculture, Cukurova University, 01330 Adana, Turkey
3
Agri-Food Laboratory and Food Safety, Faculty of Sciences Dhar El Mahraz University Sidi Mohamed Ben Abdellah, B.P. 1796 Atlas, Fez, Morocco
4
Department of Food Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Adana Science and Technology University, 01250 Adana, Turkey
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 25 May 2018 / Revised: 26 June 2018 / Accepted: 26 June 2018 / Published: 27 June 2018
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Abstract

Turkish Nigella sativa L. seed extracts were used to detect the aroma and key odorant compounds of the spice using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-olfactometry (GC-MS-O). Volatile compounds were extracted by the purge and trap extraction (PTE) method. A total of 32 volatile compounds consisting of different chemical classes acids (13), alcohols (7), phenols (3), terpene (1), esters (2), ketones (2), aldehyde (1), lactone (1) and hydrocarbons (2) were determined. The amounts of volatile compounds were found to be 21,544 µg kg−1. The application of aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) revealed the presence of 13 odor-active compounds alcohols (2), carboxylic acids (4), phenols (2), terpene (1), ketone (1), hydrocarbon (1) and unknown compounds (2) in Nigella sativa L. extract. Flavor dilution (FD) factors of key odorants ranged between 4 and 1024, while odor activity values (OAV) were in the range of 1.0 to 170.8. Acetoin was the only aroma-active ketone detected in Nigella sativa L. seed extracts. It had the strongest aroma (FD = 1024) and provided a buttery odor. This compound represented the most abundant compound of overall aroma profile with a concentration of 9394 µg kg−1, followed by isobutanoic acid (FD = 512 with a concentration of 218 µg kg−1) and contributed a powerful aroma and a cheesy characteristic odor. View Full-Text
Keywords: Nigella sativa L.; black cumin seed; purge and trap extraction; volatile compounds; key odorants; GC-MS-Olfactometry Nigella sativa L.; black cumin seed; purge and trap extraction; volatile compounds; key odorants; GC-MS-Olfactometry
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Kesen, S.; Amanpour, A.; Tsouli Sarhir, S.; Sevindik, O.; Guclu, G.; Kelebek, H.; Selli, S. Characterization of Aroma-Active Compounds in Seed Extract of Black Cumin (Nigella sativa L.) by Aroma Extract Dilution Analysis. Foods 2018, 7, 98.

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